• Nguyen Duy Hieu Faculty of Natural Sciences and Technology, Tay Bac University, Son La, Vietnam
  • Nguyen Cat Ho Institute of Theoretical and Applied Research, Duy Tan University, Hanoi, Vietnam
  • Pham Đinh Phong Faculty of Information Technology, University of Transport and Communications, Hanoi, Vietnam
  • Vu Nhu Lan Faculty of Mathematics and Informatics, Thang Long University, Hanoi, Vietnam
  • Pham Hoang Hiep HUS High School For Gifted Students, VNU Hanoi - University of Science, Vietnam



Linguistic Time Series, Linguistic Logical Relationship, Hedge Algebras, Quantitative Words Semantics.


Instead of handling fuzzy sets associated with linguistic (L-) labels based on the developers’ intuition immediately, the study follows the hedge algebras (HA-) approach to the time series forecasting problems, in which the linguistic time series forecasting model was, for the first time, proposed and examined in 2020. It can handle the declared forecasting L-variable word-set directly and, hence, the terminology linguistic time-series (LTS) is used instead of the fuzzy time-series (FTS). Instead of utilizing a limited number of fuzzy sets, this study views the L-variable under consideration as to the numeric forecasting variable's human linguistic counterpart. Hence, its word-domain becomes potentially infinite to positively utilize the HA-approach formalism for increasing the LTS forecasting result exactness. Because the forecasting model proposed in this study can directly handle L-words, the LTS, constructed from the numeric time series and its L-relationship groups, considered human knowledges of the given time-series variation helpful for the human-machine interface. The study shows that the proposed formalism can more easily handle the LTS forecasting models and increase their performance compared to the FTS forecasting models when the words’ number grows.


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