THE AMOUNT AND SPECIATION OF TRACE ELEMENTS TRANSPORTED FROM RICE FIELD TO CANAL DURING A FLOODING EVENT
Keywords:Trace element, rice field, flooding, release
AbstractTrace element pollution of soils, sediments and surface water can pose a risk for the local population and the environment of Vietnam. Rice fields can be affected by storm events, which cause the release of trace elements into surface water and transport them into drinking wells. The aim of this study was to investigate if dissolved and suspended As, Pb and Zn concentrations in surface water of a paddy rice fields and an irrigation canals increased during a flooding event and exceed the Vietnamese Surface Water Quality Standards and WHO Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality. The study site is a rice field area in the Thanh Hoa province in Central Vietnam, which experiences an average of 2.4 storms every year causing overflow of streams and low-order canals. Concentrations of As increased during the flooding event with dissolved As being the prevailing fraction, which followed a late flush behavior. Lead showed no significant difference in concentration over time. Zn concentrations only increased significantly in the canal upstream the field in the morning of the first day. Suspended Zn dominated at that time, following the first flush behavior of TSS concentrations. Concentrations of As, Pb and Zn did not exceed the Vietnamese Surface Water Quality Standards or WHO Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality at any time and they are therefore of no concern for the health of the local population
Marcussen, H., A. Dalsgaard, and P.E. Holm, Content, distribution and fate of 33 elements in sediments of rivers receiving wastewater in Hanoi, Vietnam. Environ Pollut, 2008. 155(1): p. 41-51.
Hanh, T.M.P., Sthiannopkao, S., The Ba, D. & Kim, K.-W., Development of Water Quality Indexes to Identify Pollutants in Vietnams Surface Water. Journal of Environmental Engineering, 2011. 137(4): p. 273-283.
Wilbers, G.J., et al., Spatial and temporal variability of surface water pollution in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Sci Total Environ, 2014. 485-486: p. 653-665.
Rieuwerts, J., The Elements of Environmental Pollution. s.l.:Routledge, 2015.
Schmidt-Thomé, P., et al., Impacts of Climate Change on the Thanh Hoa Province. 2015. 17-44.
Matsunaga, T., Tsuduki, K., Yanase, N., Kritsananuwat, R., Ueno, T., Hanzawa, Y. &Naganawa, H., Temporal variations in metal enrichment in suspended particulate matter during rainfall events in a rural stream. Limnology, 2013. 15(1): p. 13-25.
Michnowsky, E., et al., Changes in Extractable Metal Concentrations During Storage of Surface Water Samples Containing Sediments1. JAWRA Journal of the American Water Resources Association, 1982. 18(1): p. 129-132.
Harris, D.C., Quantitative chemical analysis. Macmillan, 2010.
Zonta, R., et al., The effect of floods on the transport of suspended sediments and contaminants: a case study from the estuary of the Dese River (Venice Lagoon, Italy). Environ Int,2005. 31(7): p. 948-58.
Chapman, P.M., et al., Ecotoxicology of metals in aquatic sediments: binding and release, bioavailability, risk assessment, and remediation. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 1998. 55(10): p. 2221-2243.
Vaithiyanathan, P., Ramanathan, A. & Subramanian, V., Transport and distribution of heavy metals in Cauvery river. Water Air Soil Pollut, 1993. 71(1-2): p. 13-28.
Sulzberger, B., Suter, D., Siffert, C., Banwart, S. & Stumm, W., Dissolution of Fe (III)(hydr) oxides in natural waters; laboratory assessment on the kinetics controlled by surface coordination. Elsevier, 1989.
Alloway, B.J., Heavy Metals in Soils. Springer Netherlands, 2013.
Takahashi, Y., et al., Arsenic Behavior in Paddy Fields during the Cycle of Flooded and Non-flooded Periods. Environmental Science & Technology, 2004. 38(4): p. 1038-1044.
Miller, C.V., G.D. Foster, and B.F. Majedi, Baseflow and stormflow metal fluxes from two small agricultural catchments in the Coastal Plain of the Chesapeake Bay Basin, United States. Applied Geochemistry, 2003. 18(4): p. 483-501.
Sandén, P., et al., Variations in hydrochemistry, trace metal concentration and transport during a rain storm event in a small catchment. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 1997. 58(2): p. 145-155.
How to Cite
Vietnam Journal of Sciences and Technology (VJST) is an open access and peer-reviewed journal. All academic publications could be made free to read and downloaded for everyone. In addition, Articles are published under term of the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International (CC BY-SA) Licence which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited & ShareAlike terms followed.
Copyright on any research article published in VJST is retained by the respective author(s), without restrictions. Authors grant VAST Journals System (VJS) a license to publish the article and identify itself as the original publisher. Upon author(s) by giving permission to VJS either via VJS journal portal or other channel to publish their research work in VJS agrees to all the terms and conditions of https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/ License and terms & condition set by VJS.
Authors have the responsibility of to secure all necessary copyright permissions for the use of 3rd-party materials in their manuscript.