Identification of cancer rules in Viet Nam by network modularity

Minh Tan Nguyen, Duc Tinh Pham, Viet Ha Tran, Dzung Tien Tran
Author affiliations


  • Minh Tan Nguyen Center of Information –Library, Hanoi University of Industry, 298 Cau Dien Street, Bac Tu Liem District, Ha Noi, Viet Nam
  • Duc Tinh Pham Graduate University of Science and Technology, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet, Cau Giay, Ha Noi, Viet Nam
  • Viet Ha Tran Department of SoftwareEngineering, Faculty of Information Technology, Hanoi University of Industry, 298 Cau Dien Street, Bac Tu Liem District, Ha Noi, Viet Nam
  • Dzung Tien Tran Department of Software Engineering, Faculty of Information Technology, Hanoi University of Industry



network modularity, cancer rule identification, network inference, graph mining


Data clustering tools can uncover new knowledge to be used in cancer diagnosis and treatment. In this study, we proposed a novel method to cluster records of a relation. First, we designed an algorithm that calculates the similarity between record pairs of the relation, and then this similarity measure was used to generate a network corresponding to the relation. Finally, we used a Network science technique to detect clusters of records from the network and extract insights from the clusters. Applying the method to mine a cancer-screening dataset at the Vietnam Central Cancer Hospital with over 177,000 records, we have discovered several new cancer laws in Viet Nam, which contribute to cancer detection and treatment support. It is disclosed from these cancer rules that some types of cancer run in certain family lines and living places in Viet Nam. Clustering a relation by Network science approach can be a good choice for mining large-scale relational data.


Download data is not yet available.


Sung H., et al. - Global Cancer Statistics 2020: GLOBOCAN Estimates of Incidence and Mortality Worldwide for 36 Cancers in 185 Countries, CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians 71 (3) (2021) 209-249.

Tran T. D. and Pham D. T. - Identification of anticancer drug target genes using an outside competitive dynamics model on cancer signaling networks, Scientific Reports, 11 (1) (2021) 14095.

Thi Nguyen D. N., et al. - The burden of cervical cancer in Vietnam: Synthesis of the evidence, Cancer Epidemiology 59 (2019) 83-103.

Van Minh H., Van Thuan T., and Shu X. O. - Scientific Evidence for Cancer Control in Vietnam, Cancer Control 26 (1) (2019) 1073274819866450.

Pham T., et al. - Cancers in Vietnam - Burden and Control Efforts: A Narrative Scoping Review, Cancer Control 26 (1) (2019) 1073274819863802.

Nguyen S. M., et al. - Projecting Cancer Incidence for 2025 in the 2 Largest Populated Cities in Vietnam. Cancer Control 26 (1) (2019) 1073274819865274.

Cao B., et al. - Benchmarking life expectancy and cancer mortality: global comparison with cardiovascular disease 1981-2010, BMJ 357 (2017) j2765.

Mercurio V., et al. - Redox Imbalances in Ageing and Metabolic Alterations: Implications in Cancer and Cardiac Diseases. An Overview from the Working Group of Cardiotoxicity and Cardioprotection of the Italian Society of Cardiology (SIC), Antioxidants 9 (7) (2020) 641.

Tran T. D. and Kwon Y. K. - The relationship between modularity and robustness in signalling networks, J. R. Soc Interface 10 (88) (2013) 20130771.

Richiardi L., Pettersson A., and Akre O. - Genetic and environmental risk factors for testicular cancer, International Journal of Andrology 30 (4) (2007) 230-241.

BÁEz A. - Genetic and Environmental Factors in Head and Neck Cancer Genesis, Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part C 26 (2) (2008) 174-200.

Ekman P. - Genetic and Environmental Factors in Prostate Cancer Genesis: Identifying High-Risk Cohorts, European Urology 35 (5-6) (1999) 362-369.

Goossens N., et al. - Cancer biomarker discovery and validation, Translational cancer research 4 (3) (2015) 256-269.

Tran T. D. and Kwon Y. K. - Hierarchical closeness efficiently predicts disease genes in a directed signaling network, Comput Biol. Chem. 53pb (2014) 191-197.

Tran T. D. and Kwon Y. K. - Hierarchical closeness-based properties reveal cancer survivability and biomarker genes in molecular signaling networks, PLOS ONE 13 (6) (2018) e0199109.

Zeka A., Gore R., and Kriebel D. - Effects of alcohol and tobacco on aerodigestive cancer risks: a meta-regression analysis, Cancer Causes Control 14 (9) (2003) 897-906.

Castellsagué X., et al. - Independent and joint effects of tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking on the risk of esophageal cancer in men and women, Int J. Cancer 82 (5) (1999) 657-64.

Pöschl G. and Seitz H. K. - Alcohol and cancer, Alcohol and Alcoholism 39 (3) (2004) 155-165.

White A. J., et al. - Breast cancer and exposure to tobacco smoke during potential windows of susceptibility, Cancer Causes & Control 28 (7) (2017) 667-675.

Griffith J., et al. - Cancer Mortality in U.S. Counties with Hazardous Waste Sites and Ground Water Pollution, Archives of Environmental Health: An International Journal 44 (2) 91989) 69-74.

Morris R. D. - Drinking water and cancer. Environmental Health Perspectives 103 (suppl 8) 91995) 225-231.

Eichelberger L., et al. - Risk of Gastric Cancer by Water Source: Evidence from the Golestan Case-Control Study, Plos one 10 (5) 92015) e0128491.

Vanamala J. - Food systems approach to cancer prevention, Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 57 (12) 92017) 2573-2588.

Schwingshackl L., et al. - Food groups and risk of colorectal cancer, International Journal of Cancer 142 (9) (2018) 1748-1758.

Eckel S. P., et al. - Air pollution affects lung cancer survival, Thorax 71 (10) (2016) 891-898.

Turner M. C., et al. - Ambient Air Pollution and Cancer Mortality in the Cancer Prevention Study II, Environmental Health Perspectives 125 (8) (2017) 087013.

Wilding S., et al. - Decision regret in men living with and beyond nonmetastatic prostate cancer in the United Kingdom: A population-based patient-reported outcome study, Psycho-Oncology 29 (5) (2020) 886-893.

Kvåle K., Haugen D. F., and Synnes O. - Patients' illness narratives -From being healthy to living with incurable cancer: Encounters with doctors through the disease trajectory, Cancer Reports 3 (2) (2020) e1227.

Song P., Wu L., and Guan W. - Dietary Nitrates, Nitrites, and Nitrosamines Intake and the Risk of Gastric Cancer: A Meta-Analysis, Nutrients 7 (12) (2015) 9872-9895.

Joossens J. V., et al. - Dietary Salt, Nitrate and Stomach Cancer Mortality in 24 Countries, International Journal of Epidemiology 25 (3) (1996) 494-504.

Hertog M. G., et al. - Dietary flavonoids and cancer risk in the Zutphen Elderly Study, Nutr Cancer 22 (2) (1994) 175-84.

Wang M., et al. - A Review on Flavonoid Apigenin: Dietary Intake, ADME, Antimicrobial Effects, and Interactions with Human Gut Microbiota, BioMed Research International 2019 (2019) 7010467.

Mendonça L. A. B. M., et al. - The Complex Puzzle of Interactions Among Functional Food, Gut Microbiota, and Colorectal Cancer, Frontiers in Oncology 8 (2018).

Scott L., Mobley L. R., and Il’yasova D. - Geospatial Analysis of Inflammatory Breast Cancer and Associated Community Characteristics in the United States, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 14 (4) (2017) 404.

Truong C. D., Tran T. D., and Kwon Y. K. - MORO: a Cytoscape app for relationship analysis between modularity and robustness in large-scale biological networks, BMC Systems Biology 10 (4) (2016) 122.

Eide P. W., et al. - CMScaller: an R package for consensus molecular subtyping of colorectal cancer pre-clinical models, Scientific Reports 7 (1) (2017) 16618.

Jung Y. G., Kang M. S., and Heo J. - Clustering performance comparison using K-means and expectation maximization algorithms, Biotechnology & Biotechnological Equipment 28 (sup1) (2014) S44-S48.

Dubey A. K., Gupta U., and Jain S. - Analysis of k-means clustering approach on the breast cancer Wisconsin dataset, International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery 11 (11) (2016) 2033-2047.

Kakushadze Z. and Yu W. - *K-means and cluster models for cancer signatures, Biomolecular Detection and Quantification 13 (2017) 7-31.

Khan I., et al. - Ensemble clustering using extended fuzzy k-means for cancer data analysis, Expert Systems with Applications 172 (2021) 114622.

Sinaga K. P. and Yang M. S. - Unsupervised K-Means Clustering Algorithm, IEEE Access 8 (2020) 80716-80727.

Singh A., Yadav A., and Rana A. - K-means with three different distance metrics, International Journal of Computer Applications 67 (10) (2013).

Sneath P. H. A. - A method for testing the distinctness of clusters: A test of the disjunction of two clusters in Euclidean space as measured by their overlap, Journal of the International Association for Mathematical Geology 9 (2) (1977) 123-143.

Sneath P. H. A. - Basic program for a significance test for two clusters in euclidean space as measured by their overlap, Computers & Geosciences 5 (2) (1979) 143-155.

Sony A., et al. - Video summarization by clustering using euclidean distance, in 2011 International Conference on Signal Processing, Communication, Computing and Networking Technologies, 2011.

Hathaway R. J. and Bezdek J. C. - Nerf c-means: Non-Euclidean relational fuzzy clustering, Pattern Recognition 27 (3) (1994) 429-437.

Zhang Z., Kaiqi H., and Tieniu T. - Comparison of Similarity Measures for Trajectory Clustering in Outdoor Surveillance Scenes, in 18th International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR'06), 2006.

Barber M. J. - Modularity and community detection in bipartite networks, Physical Review E 76 (6) (2007) 066102.

Guimerà R., Sales-Pardo M., and Amaral L. A. N. - Modularity from fluctuations in random graphs and complex networks, Physical Review E 70 (2) (2004) 025101.

Key T. J. - Fruit and vegetables and cancer risk, British Journal of Cancer 104 (1) (2011) 6-11.

Hurtado-Barroso S., et al. - Vegetable and Fruit Consumption and Prognosis Among Cancer Survivors: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Cohort Studies, Advances in Nutrition 11 (6) (2020) 1569-1582.

Byers T., et al. - American Cancer Society Guidelines on Nutrition and Physical Activity for Cancer Prevention: Reducing the Risk of Cancer with Healthy Food Choices and Physical Activity, CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians 52 (2) (2002) 92-119.

Lynch H. T., et al. - Hereditary Factors in Cancer: Study of Two Large Midwestern Kindreds, Archives of Internal Medicine 117 (2) (1966) 206-212.

Lynch H. T., et al. - Hereditary Factors in Gynecologic Cancer, The Oncologist 3 (5) (1998) 319-338.

Newman B., et al. - Inheritance of human breast cancer: evidence for autosomal dominant transmission in high-risk families, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 85 (9) (1988) 3044-3048.

Doyle C., et al. - Nutrition and Physical Activity During and After Cancer Treatment: An American Cancer Society Guide for Informed Choices, CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians 56 (6) (2006) 323-353.

Nitenberg, G. and B. Raynard, Nutritional support of the cancer patient: issues and dilemmas. Critical Reviews in Oncology/Hematology, 2000. 34(3): p. 137-168.

Ebenstein, A., The Consequences of Industrialization: Evidence from Water Pollution and Digestive Cancers in China. The Review of Economics and Statistics, 2012. 94(1): p. 186-201.

Zhang X. L., et al. - Research and control of well water pollution in high esophageal cancer areas, World journal of gastroenterology 9 (6) (2003) 1187-1190.

Zhang X., et al. - Esophageal cancer spatial and correlation analyses: Water pollution, mortality rates, and safe buffer distances in China, Journal of Geographical Sciences 24 (1) (2014) 46-58.

Chunhabundit R. - Cadmium Exposure and Potential Health Risk from Foods in Contaminated Area, Thailand, Toxicological Research 32 (1) (2016) 65-72.

Boffetta P. - Human cancer from environmental pollutants: The epidemiological evidence. Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis 608 (2) (2006) 157-162.

Wilde G. J. S. - Effects of mass media communications on health and safety habits: an overview of issues and evidence, Addiction 88 (7) (1993) 983-996.

Lee C. H., et al. - Independent and combined effects of alcohol intake, tobacco smoking and betel quid chewing on the risk of esophageal cancer in Taiwan, International Journal of Cancer 113 (3) (2005) 475-482.

de Graaf L., et al. - Live and let live: Residents' perspectives on alcohol and tobacco (mis)use in residential care facilities, International Journal of Older People Nursing n/a(n/a): p. e12508.

Salaspuro M. - Interactions of alcohol and tobacco in gastrointestinal cancer, Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 27 (s2) (2012) 135-139.

Andre K., et al. - Role of alcohol and tobacco in the aetiology of head and neck cancer: A case-control study in the doubs region of France, European Journal of Cancer Part B: Oral Oncology 31 (5) (1995) 301-309.




How to Cite

M. T. Nguyen, D. T. Pham, V. H. Tran, and D. T. Tran, “Identification of cancer rules in Viet Nam by network modularity”, Vietnam J. Sci. Technol., vol. 60, no. 6, pp. 1134–1148, Dec. 2022.



Electronics - Telecommunication