Microplastic contamination in commercial sea salt of Vietnam


  • Dang Thi Ha BaRia-VungTau University




Microplastic, contamination, sea salt, Vietnam


This is the first study which assessed the microplastic pollution of sea salt products from Vietnam. The results obtained from 9 iodate fine table sea salt and 4 raw sea salt samples collected from different regions in Vietnam showed that microplastic were present in 100% of the salts samples. The mean concentration of microplastic was 787±101 items/kg and 340±26 items/kg for raw and fine sea salts, respectively.  For both raw and fine sea salt, fibers were the predominant type of microplastic, accounted more 60% of total microplastic particles. In added, three types of polymer were detected in 12 microplastic particles by FTIR, including polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP) and polystyrene, in which, the most common is PE (accounted 67%). With a mean daily salt consumption of 5-10g/day, the annual number of microplastic particles ingested per Vietnamese adult varies from 637 to 1241 particles from salt alone.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biography

Dang Thi Ha, BaRia-VungTau University

TS. Đặng Thị Hà,

Phó Trưởng Bộ môn Công nghệ Hóa Dầu, Khoa Hóa học và CNTP, Trường ĐH Bà Rịa - Vũng Tàu


. UNEP Annual Report (2018), Development of national action plan on marine plastic debris management, International Consulting Workshop, December 2018, 20p.

Strady E., Dang TH., Dao TD., Dinh HN., Do TTD., Duong TN., Duong TT., Hoang DA., Kieu-Le TC., Le TPQ., Mai H., Dang MT., Nguyen QH., Tran-Nguyen QA., Tran QV., Truong TQS., Chu VH., Vo VC. (2020) Baseline assessment of microplastic concentrations in marine and freshwater environments of a developing Southeast Asian country, Viet Nam, Marine Pollution Bulletin, Article in press, DOI: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2020.111870.

Renzi M., Blaskovic A., 2018, Litter and microplastics features in table salts from marine origin: Italian versus Croatian brands. Marine pollution bulletin, 135, 62-68. DOI:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2018.06.065.

Kim J.S., Lee H.J., Kim SK., Kim HJ., 2018, Global pattern of microplastics (MPs) in commercial food-grade salts: sea salt as an indicator of seawater MP pollution, Environmental science and technology, 52, 12819-12828, DOI:10.1021/asc.est.8b04180.

Iniguez ME., Conesa JA., Fullane A., 2017, Microplastic in Spanish table salt. Science reports, 7, 1-7, DOI:10.1038/s41598-017-09128-x.

Peixoto D., Pinheiro C., Amorim J., Oliva-Teles L., Guilhermino L., and Vieira MN., 2019, Microplastic pollution in commercial salt for human consumption: a review, Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf science, 219, 161-168, DOI:10.1016/j.ecss.2019.02.018.

Yang D., Shi H., Li L., Li J., Jabeen K., Kolandhasamy P., 2015, Microplastic pollution in table salts from China, Environ. Sci. Technol., 49, 13622-13627, DOI:10.1021/asc.est.5b03163.

Karami A., Golieskardi A., Keong CC., Larat V., Galloway TS., and Salamatinia B., 2017, The presence of microplastic in commercial salts from different countries, Sci.Rep., 7, DOI:10.1038/srep46173.

Lee H., Kunz A., Shim WJ., and Walther BA., 2019, Microplastic contamination of table salts from Taiwan, including a global review, Scientific reports, 9:10145, DOI:10.1038/s41598-019-46417-z.

Qiu Q., Tan Z., Wang J., Peng J., Li M. and Zhan Z., 2016, Extraction, enumeration and identification methods for monitoring microplastics in the environment, Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci., 176, 102-109, DOI:10.1016/j.ecss.2016.04.012.

Cole M., 2016, A novel method for preparing microplastic fibers, Sci. Rep. 6, 1–7, DOI:10.1038/srep34519.

Soares A.S., Pinheiro C., Oliveira U. and Vieira M.N., 2020, Microplastic pollution in Portuguese saltworks, DOI:10.5772/intechopen.91476.

Seth CK. And Shriwastav A., 2018, Contamination of India sea salts with microplastics and a potential prevention strategy. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. DOI:10.1007/s11356-018-3028-5.

Barboza L.G. and Gimenez BCG., 2015, Microplastic in the marine environment: current trends and future perspectives, Mar. Pollut. Bull., 97, 5-12.

Ma Y., Huang A., Cao S., Wang L., Guo H., and Ji R., 2016, Effects of nanoplastics and microplastics on toxicity, bioaccumulation, and environmental fate of phenanthreen in fresh water, Environ. Pollut., 219, 166-173, DOI:10.1016/j.envpol.2016.10.061.

Lusher AL., Welden NA., Sobral P., Cole, M., 2017a, Sampling, isolating and identifying microplastics ingested by fish and invertebrates. Anal. Meth.9, 1346–1360. https:// doi.org/10.1039/c6ay02415g.

Lusher AL., Hollman PCH., Mendoza-Hill JJ., 2017b, Microplastics in Fisheries and Aquaculture - Status of Knowledge on Their Occurrence and Implications for Aquatic Organisms and Food Safety. FAO, Fisheries and Aquaculture Techincal paper978-92- 5-109882-0.

Smith M, Love DC., Rochman CM., Neff RA., 2018, Microplastics in seafood and the implications for human health. Curr. Environ. Heal. Rep. 5, 375–386, DOI:10.1007/s40572-018-0206-z.

Gundogdu S., 2018, Contamination of table salts from Turkey with microplastics, Food Addit.Contam., part A 35(5), 1006-1014, DOI:10.1080/19440049.2018.

Bouwmeester H., Hollman PCH., Peters RJB., 2015, Potential health impact of environmental released micro- and nanoplastics in the human food production chain: experiences from nanotoxicology, Environ.Sci.Technol., 49, 8932-8947, DOI:10.1021/asc.est.5b01090.

Waring RH., Harris RM., and Mitchell SC., 2018, Plastic contamination of the food chain: a threat to human health? Maturitas 115, 64-68, DOI:101016/j.maturitas.2018.06.010.

Li J., Yang D., Li, L., Jabeen K., Shi H., 2015. Microplastics in commercial bivalves from China. Environ. Pollut. 207, 190–195. DOI:10.1016/j.envpol.2015.09. 018.

Lima ARA., Barletta M., Costa MF., 2015, Seasonal distribution and interactions between plankton and microplastics in a tropical estuary, Estuar. Coast Shelf Sci. 165, 213–225, DOI:10.1016/j.ecss.2015.05.018.

Eo S. et al., 2018, Abundance, composition, and distribution of microplastics larger than 20µm in sand beaches of South Korea, Environ. Pollut., 238, 894-902.

Wright S.L., Thompson R.C., Galloway, T.S., 2013b. The physical impacts of microplastics on marine organisms: a review. Environ. Pollut. 178, 483–492. DOI:10.1016/j.envpol.2013.02.031.

Setälä O., Fleming-Lehtinen V., Lehtiniemi, M., 2014. Ingestion and transfer of microplastics in the planktonic food web. Environ. Pollut. 185, 77–83. DOI:10. 1016/j.envpol.2013.10.013.

Lebreton L.C.M., Van Der Zwet J., Damsteeg J.W., Slat, B., Andrady, A., Reisser, J., 2017. River plastic emissions to the world's oceans. Nat. Commun. 8, 1–10. DOI:10.1038/ncomms15611.