• Nguyen Thi Thanh Hai Institute of Environmental Technology (VAST)
  • Truong Anh Dung
  • Nguyen Thi Quy



seed, sprout, broccoli, electrochemical activated solution


Electrochemical activated solution possesses a wide variety of antimicrobial activities. Electrochemical activated solution (EAS) has been known as a super disinfectant solution with the promote ability in killing most of bacteria and fungi and safe for human use. Therefore, it has been studied and used in many different areas of life such as medication, food processing industry, etc., However, there are few reported the effect of EAS in agriculture. This study was conducted to determine the effects of using EAS to treat broccoli seeds on seed germination rate and growth of sprouts. The EAS was generated from KCl solution, the EAS was diluted with distilled water at 1.0, 0.9, 0.8, 0.7, 0.6, 0.5, 0.4, 0.3, 0.2 and 0.1 strengths of the source EAS. The results showed that treating seeds with EAS could reduce the quantity of microorganism on the surface of broccoli seeds, without affecting seed germination rate and sprout growth. The 0.3 strength EAS (pH 6,7; oxidants concentration of 8,6 ppm; ORP 560 mV) was the most suitable solution for microorganism killing on broccoli seeds.


Download data is not yet available.


U.S. Food and Drug Administration. - Questions keep sprouting about sprouts, FDA consumer 33.1 (1999) Available at: (accessed 29 August 2007).

Bari, M. L., Nei, D., Enomoto, K., Todoriki, S., & Kawamoto, S. - Combination treatments for killing Escherichia coli O157:H7 on alfalfa, radish, broccoli, and mung bean seeds. Journal of Food Protection 72(3) (2009) 631-636.

Liu Rui, Hao Jianxiong, Liu Haijie, Li Lite. - Application of electrolyzed functional water on producing mung bean sprouts, Food Control 22 (2011) 1311-1315.

Beatty, G. I., and S. B. Werner. - Alfalfa sprouts and Salmonella Kottbus infection: a multistate outbreak following inadequate seed disinfection with heat and chlorine, J. Food Prot 66 (2003) 13–17.

Feng, P. - A summary of background information and foodborne illness associated with the consumption of sprouts, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Washington, D.C. (1997) Available at: (accessed 29 August 2007).

Stewart, D., K. Reineke, J. Ulaszek, T. Fu, and M. Tortorello. - Growth of Escherichia coli O157:H7 during sprouting of alfalfa seeds, Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 33 (2001) 95–99.

Stewart, D., K. Reineke, J. Ulaszek, T. Fu, and M. Tortorello. - Growth of Salmonella during sprouting of alfalfa seeds associated with salmonellosis outbreaks, J. Food Prot. 64 (2001) 618–622.

Watanabe, Y., K. Ozasa, J. H. Mermin, P. M. Griffin, K. Masuda, S. Imashuku, and T. Sawada. - Factory outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection in Japan, Emerg. Infect. Dis. 5 (1999) 424–428.

Winthrop, K. L., M. S. Palubo, J. A. Farrar, J. C. Mohle-Boetani, S. Abbott, M. E. Beatty, G. Inami, and S. B. - Werner. Alfalfa Sprouts and Salmonella Kottbus infection: a multistate outbreak following inadequate seed disinfection with heat and chlorine, J. Food Prot. 66 (2003) 13–17.

Canadian Food Inspection Agency. - Health hazard alert. Mung bean sprouts manufactured by Toronto Sun Wah trading may contain Salmonella bacteria, 2005 Available at:

(accessed 27 August 2007).

Gabriel, A. A., Berja, M. C., Estrada, A. M. P., Lopez, M. G. A. A., Nery, J. G. B., & Villaflor, E. J. B. - Microbiology of retail mung bean sprouts vended in public markets of national capital region, Philippines, Food Control, 18 (2007) 1307-1313.

Tournas, V. H. - Moulds and yeasts in fresh and minimally processed vegetables, and sprouts, International Journal of Food Microbiology 99 (2005) 71-77.

Fu, T., D. Stewart, K. Reineke, J. Ulaszek, J. Schliesser, and M. Tortorello. - Use of spent irrigation water for microbiological analysis of alfalfa sprouts, J. Food Prot. 64 (2001) 802–806.

Taormina, P. J., L. R. Beuchat, and L. Slutsker. - Infections associated with eating seed sprouts: an international concern, Emerg. Infect. Dis. 5 (1999) 626–634.

Weiss, A., and W. P. Hammes. - Efficacy of heat treatment in the reduction of salmonellae and Escherichia coli O157:H– on alfalfa, mung bean and radish seeds used for sprout production, Eur. Food Res. Technol. 221 (2005) 187–191.

Fett, W. F. Interventions to ensure the microbial safety of sprouts. In G. M. Sapers, J. R. Gorny, and A. E. Yousef (ed.), - Microbiology of fruits and vegetables, Taylor and Francis, New York, (2006) 187–209.

Fett, W. F., T.-J. Fu, and M. L. Tortorello. - Seed sprouts: the state of microbiological safety,. In K. R. Matthews (ed.), Microbiology of fresh produce, ASM Press, Washington, D.C, (2006) 167–219.

Beuchat, L. R., and A. J. Scouten. - Combined effects of water activity, temperature, and chemical treatments on survival of Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157:H7 on alfalfa seeds. J Appl. Microbiol. 92 (2002) 382–39.

Beuchat, L. R., T. E. Ward, and C. A. Pettigrew. - Comparison of chlorine and a prototype produce wash product for effectiveness in killing Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157:H7 on alfalfa seeds, J. Food Prot. 64 (2001) 152–158.

Jaquette, C. B., L. R. Beuchat, and B. E. Mahon. - Efficacy of chlorine and heat treatment in killing Salmonella stanley inoculated onto alfalfa seeds and growth and survival of the pathogen during sprouting and storage, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 62 (1996) 2212–2215.

Peñas, E., Gómez, R., Frías, J., & Vidal-Valverde, C. - Efficacy of combinations of high pressure treatment, temperature and antimicrobial compounds to improve the microbiological quality of alfalfa seeds for sprout production, Food Control 20 (2009) 31-39.

Bialka, K. L., Demirci, A., Knabel, S. J., Patterson, P. H., & Puri, V. M. - Efficacy of electrolyzed oxidizing water for the microbial safety and quality of eggs, Poultry Science 83(12) (2004) 2071-2078.

Fabrizio, K. A., & Cutter, C. N. - Comparison of electrolyzed oxidizing water with other antimicrobial interventions to reduce pathogens on fresh pork, Meat Science 68 (2004) 463-468.

Hu, H., J. J. Churey, and R. W. Worobo. - Heat treatments to enhance the safety of mung bean seeds, J. Food Prot. 67 (2004) 1257–1260.