• Truong V. Vu Phenikaa University
  • Binh Duy Pham Phenikaa University
  • Lien V.T. Nguyen Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology
  • Cuong Nguyen Phenikaa University
  • Hoe Nguyen Phenikaa University
  • Vinh Nguyen Phenikaa University
  • Hung Vu Hanoi University of Sciencen and Technology



Front-tracking method, Freezing process, Water droplet, Wetting angle


We present the numerical results of the solidification process of water droplets on a cold plate with different wetting angles. The numerical method used is an axisymmetric front-tracking technique. The water droplets are assumed as a spherical cap and placed on the cold plate which is kept at a subfreezing temperature. At the end of solidification, we obtain a small protrusion shape at the top of the frozen water droplet and its height is also higher than that of the initial water droplet. The frozen water droplets are also compared with the corresponding experimental ones reported in the literature.


Download data is not yet available.



Andersson L.-O., Golander C.-G. and Persson S. - Ice adhesion to rubber materials, Journal of Adhesion Science and Technology 8 (1994) 117–132.

Cebeci T. and Kafyeke F. - Aircraft Icing, Annu. Rev. Fluid. Mech. 35 (2003) 11–21.

Dalili N., Edrisy A. and Carriveau R. - A review of surface engineering issues critical to wind turbine performance, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 13 (2009) 428–438.

Lian W. and Xuan Y. - Experimental investigation on a novel aero-engine nose cone anti-icing system, Applied Thermal Engineering 121 (2017) 1011–1021.

Huang L., Liu Z., Liu Y., Gou Y. and Wang L. - Effect of contact angle on water droplet freezing process on a cold flat surface, Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science 40 (2012) 74–80.

Pan Y., Shi K., Duan X. and Naterer G. F. - Experimental investigation of water droplet impact and freezing on micropatterned stainless steel surfaces with varying wettabilities, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 129 (2019) 953–964.

Zhang H., Jin Z., Jiao M. and Yang Z. - Experimental investigation of the impact and freezing processes of a water droplet on different cold concave surfaces, International Journal of Thermal Sciences 132 (2018) 498–508.

Ju J., Jin Z., Zhang H., Yang Z. and Zhang J. - The impact and freezing processes of a water droplet on different cold spherical surfaces, Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science 96 (2018) 430–440.

Shetabivash H., Dolatabadi A. and Paraschivoiu M. - A multiple level-set approach for modelling containerless freezing process, Journal of Computational Physics 415 (2020) 109527.

Vahab M., Pei C., Hussaini M. Y., Sussman M. and Lian Y. - An Adaptive Coupled Level Set and Moment-of-Fluid Method for Simulating Droplet Impact and Solidification on Solid Surfaces with Application to Aircraft Icing, 54th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, San Diego, California, USA.

Ajaev V. S. and Davis S. H. - Boundary-integral simulations of containerless solidification, Journal of Computational Physics 187 (2003) 492–503.

Wardle L. - An Introduction to the Boundary Element Method, North-Holland Mathematics Studies, Elsevier, pp. 525–551.

Tryggvason G., Bunner B., Esmaeeli A., Juric D., Al-Rawahi N., Tauber W., Han J., Nas S. and Jan Y.-J. - A Front-Tracking Method for the Computations of Multiphase Flow, Journal of Computational Physics 169 (2001) 708–759.

Vu T. V., Tryggvason G., Homma S. and Wells J. C. - Numerical investigations of drop solidification on a cold plate in the presence of volume change, Int. J. Multiphase Flow 76 (2015) 73–85.

Vu T. V., Truong A. V., Hoang N. T. B. and Tran D. K. - Numerical investigations of solidification around a circular cylinder under forced convection, J. Mech. Sci. Technol. 30 (2016) 5019–5028.

Vu T. V. and Wells J. C. - Numerical simulations of solidification around two tandemly-arranged circular cylinders under forced convection, Int. J. Multiphase Flow 89 (2017) 331–344.

Vu T. V., Tryggvason G., Homma S., Wells J. C. and Takakura H. - A Front-Tracking Method for Three-Phase Computations of Solidification with Volume Change, Journal of Chemical Engineering of Japan 46 (2013) 726–731.






Mechanical Engineering - Mechatronics