Hybrid PD and adaptive backstepping control for self-balancing two-wheel electric scooter

Ho Pham Huy Anh, Nguyen Ngoc Son


This paper proposes a combination of adaptive self-balancing controller and the left and right turning PD controller for self-balancing two-wheel electric scooter (eScooter). An adaptive self-balancing controller is synthesized by the backstepping approach and     the Lyapunov stability theory. The proposed adaptive controller allows the design of a feedback control that stabilizes self-balancing control of eScooter in the presence of uncertainty and perturbation. Additionally, the sensor signals are treated by Kalman filters and the CAN networks are applied to communication among modules of eScooter. Simulation and experimental results are shown to analyze and validate the performance of proposed controller.


Adaptive backstepping control, Kalman filter, self-balancing two-wheel robot, CAN networks, embedded system.

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.15625/1813-9663/30/4/3826

Journal of Computer Science and Cybernetics ISSN: 1813-9663

Published by Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology