SCHEDULING FOR MASSIVE MIMO USING CHANNEL AIGING UNDER QOS CONSTRAINTS
Keywords:Massive MIMO, Scheduling, QoS, channel aiging
Massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) networks support QoS (Quality of Service) by adding a new sublayer Service Data Adaption Protocol on the top of Packet Data Convergence Protocol layer to map between QoS flows and data radio bearers. In downlink for Guaranteed Bit Rate (GBR) flows, the gNB guarantees the Guaranteed Flow Bit Rate (GFBR) that defines the minimum bit rate the QoS flow can provide. So, one of the most important requirements is the minimum rate. The channel aiging helps to improve the sum-rate of Massive MIMO systems by serving more users to increase the spatial multiplexing gain without incurring additional pilot overhead. In this paper, a novel scheduler, termed QoS-Aware scheduling, is designed and proposed for Massive MIMO to use the channel aiging to increase the sum-rate but guarantee the minimum bit rate per user to support QoS. We investigate how many users are enough to serve to maximize the sum-rate while keeping the data rate per user meeting a given threshold. Through the numerical analysis we confirmed that QoS-Aware scheduling can guarantee a minimum rate per user and get a higher useful through-put (goodput) than conventional channel aiging schedulers.
M. Costa, “Writing on dirty paper (corresp.),” IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 439–441, May 1983.
F. Rusek, D. Persson, B. K. Lau, E. G. Larsson, T. L. Marzetta, O. Edfors, and F. Tufvesson, “Scaling up mimo: Opportunities and challenges with very large arrays,” IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 40–60, Jan 2013.
J. Hoydis, S. ten Brink, and M. Debbah, “Massive mimo in the ul/dl of cellular networks: How many antennas do we need?” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 160–171, February 2013.
C. Kong, C. Zhong, and Z. Zhang, “Performance of zf precoder in downlink massive mimo with non-uniform user distribution,” Journal of Communications and Networks, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 688–698, October 2016.
H. Q. Ngo, E. G. Larsson, and T. L. Marzetta, “Massive mu-mimo downlink tdd systems with linear precoding and downlink pilots,” in 2013 51st Annual Allerton Conference on Communication, Control, and Computing (Allerton), Oct 2013, pp. 293–298.
T. L. Marzetta, “Noncooperative cellular wireless with unlimited numbers of base station antennas,” IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, vol. 9, no. 11, pp. 3590–3600, November 2010.
H. Yang and T. L. Marzetta, “Performance of conjugate and zero-forcing beamforming in large-scale antenna systems,” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 172–179, February 2013.
E. G. Larsson, O. Edfors, F. Tufvesson, and T. L. Marzetta, “Massive mimo for next generation wireless systems,” IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 52, no. 2, pp. 186–195, February 2014.
M. Shariat, A. U. Quddus, S. A. Ghorashi, and R. Tafazolli, “Scheduling as an important cross-layer operation for emerging broadband wireless systems,” IEEE Communications Surveys Tutorials, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 74–86, Second 2009.
M. Bohge, J. Gross, A. Wolisz, and M. Meyer, “Dynamic resource allocation in ofdm systems: an overview of cross-layer optimization principles and techniques,” IEEE Network, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 53–59, Jan 2007.
M. Alkhaled, E. Alsusa, and W. Pramudito, “Adaptive user grouping algorithm for the downlink massive mimo systems,” in 2016 IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, April 2016, pp. 1–6.
T. Yoo and A. Goldsmith, “On the optimality of multiantenna broadcast scheduling using zero-forcing beamforming,” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 528–541, March 2006.
H. Q. Ngo, E. G. Larsson, and T. L. Marzetta, “Energy and spectral efficiency of very large multiuser mimo systems,” IEEE Transactions on Communications, vol. 61, no. 4, pp. 1436– 1449, April 2013.
F. Afroz, R. Heidery, M. Shehab, K. Sandrasegaran, and S. Shompa, “Comparative analysis of downlink packet scheduling algorithms in 3gpp lte networks,” International Journal of Wireless Mobile Networks, vol. 7, pp. 1–21, 10 2015.
T. L. Marzetta, “How much training is required for multiuser mimo?” in 2006 Fortieth Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems and Computers, Oct 2006, pp. 359–363.
E. Bjrnson, E. G. Larsson, and M. Debbah, “Massive mimo for maximal spectral efficiency: How many users and pilots should be allocated?” IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 1293–1308, Feb 2016.
B. Hassibi and B. M. Hochwald, “How much training is needed in multiple-antenna wireless links?” IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 951–963, April 2003.
B. Lee, L. Ngo, and B. Shim, “Antenna group selection-based user scheduling for massive mimo systems,” in 2014 IEEE Global Communications Conference, Dec 2014, pp. 3302–3307.
Y. Xu, G. Yue, N. Prasad, S. Rangarajan, and S. Mao, “User grouping and scheduling for large scale mimo systems with two-stage precoding,” in 2014 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), June 2014, pp. 5197–5202.
M. Benmimoune, E. Driouch, W. Ajib, and D. Massicotte, “Joint transmit antenna selection and user scheduling for massive mimo systems,” in 2015 IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC), March 2015, pp. 381–386.
L. You, X. Gao, X. Xia, N. Ma, and Y. Peng, “Pilot reuse for massive mimo transmission over spatially correlated rayleigh fading channels,” IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 3352–3366, June 2015.
J. Sohn, S. W. Yoon, and J. Moon, “On reusing pilots among interfering cells in massive mimo,” IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, vol. 16, no. 12, pp. 8092–8104, Dec 2017.
K. T. Truong and R. W. Heath, “Effects of channel aging in massive mimo systems,” Journal of Communications and Networks, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 338–351, Aug 2013.
A. K. Papazafeiropoulos and T. Ratnarajah, “Deterministic equivalent performance analysis of time-varying massive mimo systems,” IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, vol. 14, no. 10, pp. 5795–5809, Oct 2015.
C. Kong, C. Zhong, A. K. Papazafeiropoulos, M. Matthaiou, and Z. Zhang, “Effect of channel aging on the sum rate of uplink massive mimo systems,” in 2015 IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory (ISIT), June 2015, pp. 1222– 1226.
C. Kong, C. Zhong, A. Papazafeiropoulos, M. Matthaiou, and Z. Zhang, “Sum-rate and power scaling of massive mimo systems with channel aging,” IEEE Transactions on Communications, vol. 63, 10 2015.
H. Lee, S. Park, and S. Bahk, “Enhancing spectral efficiency using aged csi in massive mimo systems,” in 2016 IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM), Dec 2016, pp. 1–6.
3GPP TR 38.804, Study on New Radio Access Technology; Radio Interface Protocol Aspects, Std., Mar. V14.0.0, 2017.
3GPP TS 38.300, ”3rd Generation Partnership Project, Technical Specification Group Radio Access Network”, Std., Jun. V15.2.0 (2018-06).
W. C. Jakes, Microwave mobile communications. New York: Wiley, 1974.
J. R. Hampton, Introduction to MIMO Communications. Cambridge University Press, 2015.
Authors who publish with Vietnam Journal of Science and Technology agree with the following terms:
- The manuscript is not under consideration for publication elsewhere. When a manuscript is accepted for publication, the author agrees to automatic transfer of the copyright to the editorial office.
- The manuscript should not be published elsewhere in any language without the consent of the copyright holders. Authors have the right to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal’s published version of their work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their websites) prior to or during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges or/and greater number of citation to the to-be-published work (See The Effect of Open Access).