Recreational and conservative valuation of Bien Ho landscape


  • Nguyen Thanh Tuan Vietnam National Museum of Nature, VAST, Hanoi, Vietnam
  • Tran Thuy Chi Vietnam National Museum of Nature, VAST, Hanoi, Vietnam
  • Tran Van Y Vietnam National Museum of Nature, VAST, Hanoi, Vietnam
  • Vu Thi Mung Institute of Geography, VAST, Hanoi, Vietnam



Economic valuation, travel cost method, contingent valuation method, volcanic landscapes, conservative value, recreational value


Bien Ho is one of the volcanic landscapes showing lava eruptions that occurred millions of years ago. It is a symbol of the volcanic landscapes in the Tay Nguyen, Vietnam, which keeps a lot of values. This article aimed to quantify recreational and conservative values. The travel cost and contingent valuation method were used to estimate the recreational and conservative value (existence, bequest, and option value) of Bien Ho, respectively. The results indicated that the recreational and conservative value of Bien Ho volcanic landscape was 1,436.9 billion VND and 38.6 billion VND, respectively. The average willingness to pay in the contingent valuation method was 39,388 VND and depended only on ethnicity and age. The study used different populations to define survey samples according to each estimating method to improve the confident accuracy of the results.


Download data is not yet available.


Luu The Anh, 2014. Researching on soil degradation and desertification in Tay Nguyen and proposing sustainable land use solutions (in Vietnamese). Code: TN3/T01. Tay Nguyen 3 Program.

ACIL Tasman Pty Ltd (ACIL), 2006. Harvey water bulk water pricing: Recreational value of the dams.


Christopher M.F., Averil C., 2008. The recreational value of Lake McKenzie, Fraser Island: An application of the travel cost method. Tourism Management, 29(6), 1197–1205.

DanSo, 2018. Vietnam Population.

Dinh Duc Truong, 2010. Assessment of economic value for managing natural resources in SE - applied in the estuarine area of Ba Lat river, Nam Dinh province. Economic doctoral thesis. Hanoi.

Fan Z., Xiao H.W., Paulo A.L.D.N., Chunbo M., 2015. The recreational value of gold coast beaches, Australia: An application of the travel cost method Ecosystem Services, 11, 106–114.

Gia Lai Province Cultural, Cinema and Tourism Center (GCCTC), 2018. Pleiku to develop tourism into spearhead economic sector. (in Vietnamese).

General Statistics Office Of Vietnam (GSO), 2016. Area, population and population density by province.

General Statistics Office Of Vietnam (GSO), 2014. Result of the Vietnam household living standards survey 2014. Vietnamese).

Nguyen Thi Hai, 1997. Determining the recreational value of Cuc Phuong National Park by travel cost method. Workshop of Environmental Economy, 29/8/1997, Ho Chi Minh city. (in Vietnamese).

Hamid A., Sadegh K., Mohammad H.A., Majid A., 2006. Estimating the existence value of north forests of Iran by using a contingent valuation method. Ecological Economics, 58 (4), 665–675.

Hans F.B., Stephen J.H., Barbara Z., Alberto L., 2007. Design tools related to socio-economics. Environmental Design Guidelines for Low Crested Coastal Structures. Elsevier Science, 448. eBook ISBN: 9780080555829.

Nguyen Thi Minh Huyen, 2009. To study the application the method of assessing of the economic resources of some coastal ecosystems in Vietnam and proposing solutions for sustainable use, VAST (in Vietnamese).

Hoang N., 2005. Source characteristics and melting conditions of Cenozoic basalts from Pleiku, south-central Vietnam. Journal of Geology, Series A, 286, 15–22 (inVietnamese with English abstract).

Jala and Nandagiri, L., 2015. Evaluation of Economic Value of Pilikula Lake Using Travel Cost and Contingent Valuation Methods. Aquatic Procedia, 4, 1315–1321.

Kiyohito U., 2018. The value of local railways: An approach using the contingent valuation method. Research in Transportation Economics. In press, corrected proof. Available online 6 June 2018. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 99, 111–117.

Karen M., Sue S., Richard S.J.T., 2007. Comparing the Travel Cost Method and the Contingent Valuation Method-An Application of Convergent Validity Theory to the Recreational Value of Irish Forests. Working Paper, 190.

Marbek, Steven R., Diane D., Jim B., 2010. Economic value of protecting the Great Lakes, Literature Review Report. Submitted to Ontario Ministry of the Environment,

Marius M., Manuel W., 2018. Assessing and valuing the recreational ecosystem services of Germany’s national parks using travel cost models. Ecosystem Services, 31(C), 371–386.

Merlin M.H., John R., 2017. Valuing urban open space using the travel-cost method and the implications of measurement error. Journal of Environmental Management, 198(2), 50–65.

Mike C., 2012. Valuation Methods Theory & Practice. Regional workshop: Mainstreaming Ecosystem Services Approaches into Development.

Vu Tan Phuong, 2006. Values of Forest Environment Goods and Service. (in Vietnamese).

People's Committee of Gia Lai province (PCGP), 2016. Comprehensive planning for tourism development of Gia Lai province to 2020, vision to 2030. (in Vietnamese).

Pirikiya M., Amirnejad H., Oladi J., Ataie Solout K., 2016. Comparing the Travel Cost Method and the Contingent Valuation Method – An Application of Convergent Validity Theory to the Recreational Value of Irish Forests. Journal of forest science, 6(2), 399–406. Doi: 10.17221/12/2016-JFS.

Pokki H., Artell J., Mikkola J., Orell P., Ovaskainen V., 2018. Valuing recreational salmon fishing at a remote site in Finland: A travel cost analysis. Fisheries Research, 208, 145–156.

Saúl T.O., Rubén P.A., Pedro D.S., Julio M.L., Felipe P.G., 2018. Economic Valuation of Cultural Heritage: Applicationof Travel Cost Method to the National Museum and Research Center of Altamira. Sustainability 2018, 10, 2550. Doi:10.3390/su10072550.

Sandra F., Rui C.M., 2015. Contingent valuation method applied to waste management. Resources Conservation and Recycling.

Tran Vo Hung Son, Pham Khanh Nam, 2001. Using the travel cost method to analyze recreational value of Hon Mun coral islands, Khanh Hoa province. University of Economics Ho Chi Minh. (in Vietnamese).

Do Nam Thang, JeffBennett, 2005. Estimating Direct Use Values of Wetlands: a case study in Ca Mau-Vietnam, Occasional Paper 08, Environmental Management and Development, Australian National University, Canberra, Australia.

The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB), 2010. The economics of valuing ecosystem services and biodiversity. In: Kumar P ed. The economics of ecosystem and biodiversity: ecological and economic foundations. London, Routledge.

Tom Ndebele, 2006. Economic Non-Market valuation techniques: Theory and Application to ecosystems and ecosystem services. A case study of the restoration and Preservation of Pekapekas Swamp: an Application of the contingent valuation method in measuring the economic value of restoring and preserving ecosystems services in an impaired wetland.

Venkatachalam L., 2003. The contingent valuation method: a review. Environmental Impact Assessment Review, 24(1), 89–124.

Vincenzo D.G., Pierfrancesco D.P., 2016. The Contingent Valuation Method for Evaluating Historical and Cultural Ruined Properties. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 223, 595–600.

Weiqi C., Huasheng H., Yan L., Luoping Z., Mark R., 2004. Recreation demand and economic value: An application of travel cost method for Xiamen Island. China Economic Review, 15(4), 398–406.

Wikipedia, 2018. Economic surplus.


How to Cite

Tuan, N. T., Chi, T. T., Y, T. V., & Mung, V. T. (2019). Recreational and conservative valuation of Bien Ho landscape. VIETNAM JOURNAL OF EARTH SCIENCES, 41(2), 156–172.




Most read articles by the same author(s)