or to make a submission.

Submission Preparation Checklist

As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.
  • The submission has not been previously published, nor is it before another journal for consideration (or an explanation has been provided in Comments to the Editor).
  • The submission file is in OpenOffice, Microsoft Word, RTF, or WordPerfect document file format.
  • Where available, URLs for the references have been provided.
  • The text is single-spaced; uses a 12-point font; employs italics, rather than underlining (except with URL addresses); and all illustrations, figures, and tables are placed within the text at the appropriate points, rather than at the end.
  • The text adheres to the stylistic and bibliographic requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines, which is found in About the Journal.
  • If submitting to a peer-reviewed section of the journal, the instructions in Ensuring a Blind Review have been followed.

Author Guidelines

The author has the difficulty in online submission, can send your manuscript by email to the following address:; and

The format of the manuscript as follows:

The author can download this Example:


Submission of a paper implies that it has not been published previously, that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, and that if accepted it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, without the written consent of the publisher. Submissions should be original and comprise previously unpublished data, interpretations, or syntheses. Invited review papers will also be considered.

Papers should be in English, but if they concern the geology of a non-English speaking region, or if one or more authors are resident in a non-English speaking country, they may include an abstract in an appropriate language which uses the Roman alphabet.

Submission of a multi-authored manuscript implies the consent of all the participating authors.

With the submitted manuscript authors should provide the names, addresses, e-mail addresses and fax numbers of five suggested reviewers.


Conflict of interest

All authors  are  requested  to  disclose  any  actual  or  potential  conflict  of  interest  including  any  financial,  personal  or  other  relationships  with  other  people  or  organizations  within  three  years  of  beginning   the   submitted   work that could   inappropriately influence,   or be perceived to influence, their work.

Submission declaration and verification

Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously by other journals (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis or as an electronic preprint, that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder.

Each author is required to declare his or her individual contribution to the article: all authors must have materially participated in the research and/or article preparation, so roles for all authors should be described. The statement that all authors have approved the final article should be true and included in the disclosure.


Please write your text in English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). We accept in Vietnamese only for Ph.D. students and young researchers. Editorial board will support researchers who has good result but not familiar with English.


Our online submission system guides you stepwise through the process of entering your article details and uploading your files. The system converts your article files to a single PDF file used in the peer-review process. Editable files (e.g., Word) are required to typeset your article for final publication. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, is sent by e-mail.

Submit your article

Please submit your article via website. Who has the difficulty in e-submitting, can send by email to the journal secretary:


Please submit, with the manuscript, the names, addresses and e-mail addresses of 5 potential referees. Note that the editor retains the sole right to decide whether or not the suggested reviewers are used.


Use of word processing software

It is important that the file be saved in the native format of the word processor used. The text should be in single-column format. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. In particular, do not use the word processor's options to justify text or to hyphenate words. However, do use bold face, italics, subscripts, superscripts etc. When preparing tables, if you are using a table grid, use only one grid for each individual table and not a grid for each row. If no grid is used, use tabs, not spaces, to align columns. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts.  Note that source files of figures, tables and text graphics will be required whether or not you embed your figures in the text. See also the section on Electronic artwork.

To avoid unnecessary errors, you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your word processor.

Article structure

Please add a title page, detailing the title, the authors and their affiliations and the abstract of your paper to the beginning of your paper.

Please use a size 12-point font and double line spacing for all parts of your manuscript, including the main text, abstract, references, and figure captions.

Submit your paper with numbered pages and with wide margins (at least 2.5 cm).

Subdivision - numbered sections

Divide your article into clearly defined and numbered sections. Subsections should be numbered

1.1. (then 1.1.1, 1.1.2, ...), 1.2, etc. (the abstract is not included in section numbering). Use this numbering also for internal cross-referencing: do not just refer to 'the text'. Any subsection may be given a brief heading. Each heading should appear on its own separate line.

Essential title page information

Title. Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.

Author names and affiliations. Please clearly indicate the given name(s) and family name(s) of each author and check that all names are accurately spelled. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name and, if available, the e-mail address of each author.

Corresponding author. The corresponding author is independent of the first author. Clearly indicate * at  who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. Ensure that the e-mail address is given and that contact details are kept up to date by the corresponding author.


A concise and factual abstract is required. The abstract should state briefly the purpose of the research, the principal results and major conclusions. An abstract is often presented separately from the article, so it must be able to stand alone. For this reason, References should be avoided, but if essential, then cite the author(s) and year(s). Also, non-standard or uncommon abbreviations should be avoided, but if essential they must be defined at their first mention in the abstract itself.


Immediately after the abstract, provide a maximum of 6 keywords, using American spelling and avoiding general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, 'and', 'of'). Be sparing with abbreviations: only abbreviations firmly established in the field may be eligible. These keywords will be used for indexing purposes.


State the objectives of the work. The introduction should put the focus of the manuscript into a broader context.  Relevant controversies or disagreements in the field should be mentioned so that a non-expert reader can delve into these issues further. The introduction should conclude with a brief statement of the rationale for the study, the hypothesis that was addressed or the overall purpose of the experiments reported, and should provide a comment about whether that aim was achieved.


Provide an adequate background, avoiding a detailed literature survey or a summary of the results. You should supply sufficient background information to allow the reader to understand and evaluate the results without referring to previous publications on the topic. As you compose the introduction, think of readers who are not experts in this field. Include a brief review of the key literature - use only those references required to provide the most salient background rather than an exhaustive review of the topic.

Material and methods

Provide sufficient detail to allow the work to be reproduced. Protocols for new methods or significant modifications to existing methods should be included, while previously published or well established protocols should only be referenced. Describe new methods completely and give sources of unusual chemicals, equipment, strains etc. Studies presented should comply with our recommendations for distribution of materials and data. In theoretical papers comprising the computational analyses, technical details (methods, models applied or newly developed) should be provided to enable the readers to reproduce the calculations. A Theory should extend, not repeat.


Results should be clear and concise. This section should provide statistical analyses of all of the experiments that are required to support the conclusions of the paper. Reserve extensive interpretation of the results for the Discussion section. Details of experiments that are peripheral to the main thrust of the article and that detract from the focus of the article should not be included. Present the results as concisely as possible in text, table(s), or figure(s) (see below). Avoid extensive use of graphs to present data that might be more concisely presented in the text or tables. Graphs illustrating methods commonly used need not be shown except in unusual circumstances. Limit photographs to those that are absolutely necessary to show the experimental findings. Number figures and tables in the order in which they are cited in the text, and be sure to cite all figures and tables. Styles and fonts should match those in the main body of the article. Large datasets, including raw data, should be submitted as supporting files. The section may be divided into subsections, each with a concise subheading.


This should explore the significance of the results of the work, not repeat them. Avoid extensive citations and discussion of published literature. The Discussion should provide an interpretation of the results in relation to previously published work and to the experimental system used. It should not contain extensive repetition of the Results or reiteration of the Introduction. This section should spell out the major conclusions of the work along with some explanation or speculation on the significance of these conclusions. The discussion should be concise and tightly argued.


The main conclusions of the study may be presented in a short Conclusions section, which may stand alone or form a subsection of a Discussion or Results and Discussion section.


This section should describe sources of funding that have supported the work. Please also describe the role of the study sponsor(s), if any, in study design; collection, analysis, and interpretation of data; writing of the paper; and decision to submit it for publication.


Citation in text

Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. If these references are included in the reference list they should follow the standard reference style of the

journal and should include a substitution of the publication date with either 'Unpublished results' or 'Personal communication'. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication.

Reference style

Text: All citations in the text should refer to:

1.   Single author: the author's name (without initials, unless there is ambiguity) and the year of publication;

2.  Two authors: both authors' names and the year of publication;

3.  Three or more authors: first author's name followed by "et al." and the year of publication. Citations may be made directly (or parenthetically). Groups of references should be listed first alphabetically, then chronologically.

Examples: "as demonstrated (Allan, 1996a, 1996b, 1999; Allan and Jones, 1995). Kramer et al. (2000) have recently shown ...."

Web references

As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references can be listed separately (e.g., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list.

List: Properly alphabetize your references; write journal names out in full. Remove the numbering from your references. References in the alphabetical list should be in the form of the following example, and individual references must be separated by double line space:

Harrison, T.M., Leloup, P.H., Ryerson, F.J., Tapponnier, P., Lacassin, R., Chen, W., 1995. Diachronous initiation of transtension along the Ailao Shan-Red River shear zone, Yunnan and Vietnam, In: Ann Yin, Harrison, T.M. (Eds.), The Tectonic Evolution of Asia. Cambridge University Press, pp. 208-226.

Shi, G.R., Shen, Shu-zhong, 1998. A Changhsingian Late Permian brachiopod fauna from Son La, northwest Vietnam. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 16, 501-511.


If there is more than one appendix, they should be identified as A, B, etc. Formulae and equations in appendices should be given separate numbering: Eq. (A.1), Eq. (A.2), etc.; in a subsequent appendix, Eq. (B.1) and so on. Similarly for tables and figures: Table A.1; Fig. A.1, etc.


Define abbreviations that are not standard in this field in a footnote to be placed on the first page  of the article. Such abbreviations that are unavoidable in the abstract must be defined at their first mention there, as well as in the footnote. Ensure consistency of abbreviations throughout the article.


Follow internationally accepted rules and conventions: use the international system of units (SI). If other units are mentioned, please give their equivalent in SI.

Math formulae

Please submit math equations as editable text and not as images. Present simple formulae in line with normal text where possible and use the solidus (/) instead of a horizontal line for small fractional terms, e.g., X/Y. In principle, variables are to be presented in italics. Powers of e are often more conveniently denoted by exp. Number consecutively any equations that have to be displayed separately from the text (if referred to explicitly in the text).


Footnotes should be used sparingly. Number them consecutively throughout the article. Many word processors can build footnotes into the text, and this feature may be used. Otherwise, please indicate the position of footnotes in the text and list the footnotes themselves separately at the end of the article. Do not include footnotes in the Reference list.


General points

•  Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.

•  Save text in illustrations as "graphics" or enclose the font.

•  Only use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Times, Symbol.

•  Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.

•  Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.

•  Provide captions to illustrations separately.

•  Produce images near to the desired size of the printed version.

•  Submit each figure as a separate file.


Regardless of the application used, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please "save as" or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):

EPS: Vector drawings. Embed the font or save the text as "graphics".

TIFF, JPEG: color or grayscale photographs (halftones): always use a minimum of 500 dpi.

TIFF, JPEG: Bitmapped line drawings: use a minimum of 1000 dpi.

TIFF, JPEG: Combinations bitmapped line/halftone (color or grayscale): a minimum of 500 dpi is required. If your electronic artwork is created in a Microsoft Office application (Word, PowerPoint, Excel) then please supply "as is".

Please do not:

•  Supply files that are optimized for screen use (like GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); the resolution is too low;

•  Supply files that are too low in resolution;

•  Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.

Present your figures and tables on separate sheets, not within the text. Please number your figures. Please remove all figures placeholder from within your text.

Color artwork

Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF (or JPEG), EPS (or PDF), or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color online (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites) regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in color in the printed version. Please indicate your preference for color: in print or online only. For further information on the preparation of electronic artwork.

Figure captions

Ensure that each illustration has a caption. Supply captions separately, not attached to the figure. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used. Figures captions can be placed next to the relevant text in the article at the end.


Please submit tables as editable text and not as images. Tables can be placed next to the relevant text in the article at the end. Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text and place any table notes below the table body. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in them do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article. Please avoid using vertical rules.

Submission checklist

The following list will be useful during the final checking of an article prior to sending it to the journal for review. Please consult this Guide for Authors for further details of any item.

•  Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Web)

•  Color figures are clearly marked as being intended for color reproduction on the Web (free of charge) and in print or to be reproduced in color on the Web (free of charge) and in black-and-white in print

•  If only color on the Web is required, black and white versions of the figures are also supplied for printing purposes

The author can download this Example:

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