Assessment of earthquake-induced liquefaction hazard in urban areas of Hanoi city using LPI-based method

Bui Thi Nhung, Nguyen Hong Phuong, Pham The Truyen, Nguyen Ta Nam
Author affiliations


  • Bui Thi Nhung Institute of Geophysics, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology
  • Nguyen Hong Phuong 1-Institute of Geophysics, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology 2-Graduate University of Science and Technology, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology 3-IRD, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, Unité Mixte Internationale de Modélisation Mathé-matique et Informatiques des Systèmes Complexes (UMMISCO)32 venue Henri Varagnat, 93143 Bondy Cedex, France
  • Pham The Truyen 1-Institute of Geophysics, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology 2-Graduate University of Science and Technology, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology
  • Nguyen Ta Nam Institute of Geophysics, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology



Liquefaction hazard, Standard Penetration Test (SPT), liquefaction potential index (LPI), liquefaction probability, earthquake


Liquefaction Potential Index (LPI) is used as an assessing tool of liquefaction potential. In this study, the LPI-based method was applied to evaluate the earthquake-induced liquefaction potential for the urban area of Hanoi city. The data used includes 120 boreholes logs, containing necessary geomechanical information such as fine contents, specific gravity, dry density, porosity, N (SPT) values and the groundwater depth Z(w) of subsoil layers in every borehole. The “simplified procedure” proposed by Seed and Idriss was applied to evaluate the liquefaction of all subsoil layers in each borehole point. Then, the Liquefaction Potential Index was calculated for the whole soil column at al boreholes points using the method proposed by Iwasaki. Finally, the obtained LPI values were used to assess the liquefaction probability for an urban area of Hanoi city, using the empirical formula proposed by Papathanassiou and two earthquake scenarios originated on the Chay river fault with magnitudes of 5.3 and 6.5, respectively.

For entire study area, the first scenario earthquake (Mw=5.3) is not capable of causing liquefaction (PG<0.1). This means that the downtown area of Hanoi city is non-liquefiable to the medium magnitude events. Results of the second scenario (Mw=6.5) show in worst cases, an earthquake with magnitude, maximum expected for Hanoi region can produce liquefaction throughout the downtown area of Hanoi city. The highest liquefaction probability of 0.7<PG≤0.9 is distributed in two large areas, where the first one is observed in Thanh Tri district, eastern part of Ha Dong, a smaller areas of the Thanh Xuan, Tu Liem and Cau Giay districts, while the second area covers Hoan Kiem district, a northern part of Hai Ba Trung district and northwestern part of Long Bien district.

This is the first time the LPI based method was applied for evaluation of earthquake-induced liquefaction for Hanoi city. The most advantage of the method is that it can be easy to use, although the reliability of the results depends very much on number and distribution of the borehole data. Nevertheless, the combination of this method with other available methods can help effectively solving the problem of urban seismic risk assessment for the mega-cities in Vietnam.


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How to Cite

Nhung, B. T., Phuong, N. H., Truyen, P. T., & Nam, N. T. (2018). Assessment of earthquake-induced liquefaction hazard in urban areas of Hanoi city using LPI-based method. Vietnam Journal of Earth Sciences, 40(1), 78–96.




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