Effects of single or combination of dietary vitamin C and β-glucan supplementation on golden trevally, \(\textit{Gnathanodon speciosus}\) (Carangidae)

Do-Huu Hoang, Huynh Minh Sang, Nguyen Thi Nguyet Hue, Vo Hai Thi, Tran Thi Minh Hue, Huynh Thi Ngoc Duyen, Nguyen Tam Vinh
Author affiliations


  • Do-Huu Hoang Institute of Oceanography, VAST, Vietnam; Graduate University of Science and Technology, VAST, Vietnam
  • Huynh Minh Sang Institute of Oceanography, VAST, Vietnam; Graduate University of Science and Technology, VAST, Vietnam https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1721-8340
  • Nguyen Thi Nguyet Hue Institute of Oceanography, VAST, Vietnam
  • Vo Hai Thi Institute of Oceanography, VAST, Vietnam
  • Tran Thi Minh Hue Institute of Oceanography, VAST, Vietnam
  • Huynh Thi Ngoc Duyen Institute of Oceanography, VAST, Vietnam
  • Nguyen Tam Vinh Institute of Oceanography, VAST, Vietnam




Growth, survival, body composition, vitamin C, β-glucan.


This study aims to test the single and combination effects of dietary vitamin C and β-glucan on golden trevally, Gnathanodon speciosus. The basal diet (D0) was added with vitamin C at 200 mg kg-1 diet (D1), β-glucan at 1.0 g kg-1 diet (D2), and a combination of vitamin C and β-glucan (200 mg vitamin C and 1 g β-glucan per kilogram diet) (D3). The diets were fed the fish for eight weeks. After eight weeks of diet feeding, the growth rate of the fish enhanced significantly with the presence of vitamin C, β-glucan, and the combination of Vitamin C and β-glucan (p < 0.05). The growth rate was significantly higher in a fish-fed diet combined with vitamin C and β-glucan. Survival rates were not significantly different among diet treatments. Muscle protein of fish ranged from 18.36–21.50% among diet treatments. Fish protein content in fish was not influenced by vitamin C, but the protein was higher in fish fed with the β-glucan-added diet and combination the β-glucan and vitamin C-added diet. The current results suggest that a supplemented combination of vitamin C and β-glucan could boost this golden trevally’s growth and body composition at the juvenile stage.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...


Abdel-Daim, M. M. 2016. Synergistic protective role of ceftriaxone and ascorbic acid against subacute diazinon-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Cytotechnology 68: 279-289. doi: 10.1007/s10616-014-9779-z. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10616-014-9779-z

Ai, Q., Mai, K., Zhang, L., Tan, B., Zhang, W., Xu, W., et al. 2007. Effects of dietary β-1, 3 glucan on innate immune response of large yellow croaker, Pseudosciaena crocea. Fish & Shellfish Immunology 22: 394-402. doi: 10.1016/j.fsi.2006.06.011. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2006.06.011

Bagni, M., Romano, N., Finoia, M. G., Abelli, L., Scapigliati, G., Tiscar, P. G., et al. 2005. Short- and long-term effects of a dietary yeast beta-glucan (Macrogard) and alginic acid (Ergosan) preparation on immune response in sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Fish & Shellfish Immunology 18: 311-325. doi: 10.1016/j.fsi.2004.08.003. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2004.08.003

Broach, J. S., Ohs, C. L., Palau, A., Danson, B., Elefante, D. 2015. Induced Spawning and Larval Culture of Golden Trevally. North American Journal of Aquaculture 77: 532-538. doi: 10.1080/15222055.2015.1066470. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/15222055.2015.1066470

Cook, M. T., Hayball, P. J., Hutchinson, W., Nowak, B. F., Hayball, J. D. 2003. Administration of a commercial immunostimulant preparation, EcoActiva™ as a feed supplement enhances macrophage respiratory burst and the growth rate of snapper (Pagrus auratus, Sparidae (Bloch and Schneider)) in winter. Fish & Shellfish Immunology 14: 333-345. doi: 10.1006/fsim.2002.0441. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1006/fsim.2002.0441

Dabrowski, K., Lee, K.-J., Guz, L., Verlhac, V., Gabaudan, J. 2004. Effects of dietary ascorbic acid on oxygen stress (hypoxia or hyperoxia), growth and tissue vitamin concentrations in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Aquaculture 233: 383-392. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2003.09.047. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2003.09.047 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2003.09.047.">

Dalmo, R. A., Bogwald, J. 2008. Beta-glucans as conductors of immune symphonies. Fish & Shellfish Immunology 25: 384-396. doi: 10.1016/j.fsi.2008.04.008. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2008.04.008

Dawood, M. A. O., Koshio, S., El-Sabagh, M., Billah, M. M., Zaineldin, A. I., Zayed, M. M., et al. 2017. Changes in the growth, humoral and mucosal immune responses following β-glucan and vitamin C administration in red sea bream, Pagrus major. Aquaculture 470: 214-222. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2016.12.036. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2016.12.036 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2016.12.036.">

Dawood, M. A. O., Koshio, S., Esteban, M. Á. 2018. Beneficial roles of feed additives as immunostimulants in aquaculture: a review. Reviews in Aquaculture 10: 950-974. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/raq.12209. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/raq.12209 https://doi.org/10.1111/raq.12209.">

Do-Huu, H., Jones, C. M. 2014. Effects of dietary mannan oligosaccharide supplementation on juvenile spiny lobster Panulirus homarus (Palinuridae). Aquaculture 432: 258-264. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2014.05.013. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2014.05.013 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2014.05.013.">

Do-Huu, H., Sang, H. M., Thanh Thuy, N. T. 2016. Dietary β-glucan improved growth performance, Vibrio counts, haematological parameters and stress resistance of pompano fish, Trachinotus ovatus Linnaeus, 1758. Fish & Shellfish Immunology 54: 402-410. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2016.03.161. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2016.03.161 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2016.03.161.">

Do-Huu, H., Thanh Thuy, N. T., An, H. T. 2022. Supplementing the diet of pompano Trachinotus ovatus with MacroGard® to increase innate immunity, intestinal microbes, growth and ammonia tolerance. Regional Studies in Marine Science 55: 102621. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rsma.2022.102621. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rsma.2022.102621 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rsma.2022.102621.">

Dung, V. T., Dung, V. T. 2020. Feeding frequencies effects golden trevally (G. speciosus Forsskal, 1775) in the begining period of growing - out. Journal of Fisheries Science and Technology 2: 90-96. doi,

El-Keredy, Abeer, M. S., El-Shenway, A. M., Diab, A. M., Ali, G. I. E., Kotb, W. S. 2017. Effect of Dietary Vitamin C and Β-Glucan to Alleviate the Toxic Effect of Copper Sulphate in Tilapia Fish. Alexandria Journal of Veterinary Sciences 55: 36-49. doi: 10.5455/ajvs.276295. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5455/ajvs.276295

Eo, J., Lee, K. J. 2008. Effect of dietary ascorbic acid on growth and non-specific immune responses of tiger puffer, Takifugu rubripes. Fish & Shellfish Immunology 25: 611-616. doi: 10.1016/j.fsi.2008.08.009. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2008.08.009

Hoang, D.-H. 2021. Effects of dietary vitamin C supplementation on fingerling golden trevally, Gnathanodon speciosus (Carangidae). International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies 9: 92-95. doi: https://doi.org/10.22271/fish.2021.v9.i6a.2588. DOI: https://doi.org/10.22271/fish.2021.v9.i6a.2588 https://doi.org/10.22271/fish.2021.v9.i6a.2588.">

Ibiyo, L. M., Madu, C. T., Eze, S. S. 2006. Effects of vitamin C supplementation on the growth of Heterobranchus longifilis fingerlings. Archives of Animal Nutrition 60: 325-332. doi: 10.1080/17450390600785459. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/17450390600785459

Lin, S., Pan, Y., Luo, L., Luo, L. 2011. Effects of dietary β-1,3-glucan, chitosan or raffinose on the growth, innate immunity and resistance of koi (Cyprinus carpio koi). Fish & Shellfish Immunology 31: 788-794. doi: 10.1016/j.fsi.2011.07.013. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2011.07.013

Misra, C. K., Das, B. K., Mukherjee, S. C., Pattnaik, P. 2006. Effect of long term administration of dietary β-glucan on immunity, growth and survival of Labeo rohita fingerlings. Aquaculture 255: 82-94. doi: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2005.12.009. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2005.12.009

NRC. 2011. Nutrient Requirements of Fish and Shrimp. National Academies Press, Washington, DC. doi,

Randall, J. E., Allen, G. R., Steen, R. C. 1997. Fishes of the Great Barrier Reef and Coral Sea. University of Hawaii Press. doi,

Refstie, S., Baeverfjord, G., Seim, R. R., Elvebø, O. 2010. Effects of dietary yeast cell wall β-glucans and MOS on performance, gut health, and salmon lice resistance in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fed sunflower and soybean meal. Aquaculture 305: 109-116. doi: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2010.04.005. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2010.04.005

Rufchaie, R., Hoseinifar, S. H. 2014. Effects of dietary commercial yeast glucan on innate immune response, hematological parameters, intestinal microbiota and growth performance of white fish (Rutilus frisii kutum) fry. Croatian Journal of Fisheries 72: 156-163. doi: 10.14798/72.4.772. DOI: https://doi.org/10.14798/72.4.772

Trichet, V. V. 2010. Nutrition and immunity: an update. Aquaculture Research 41: 356-372. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2109.2009.02374.x. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2109.2009.02374.x https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2109.2009.02374.x.">

Verlhac, V., Obach, A., Gabaudan, J., SchÜEp, W., Hole, R. 1998. Immunomodulation by dietary vitamin C and glucan in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Fish & Shellfish Immunology 8: 409-424. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/fsim.1998.0148. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1006/fsim.1998.0148 http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/fsim.1998.0148.">

Wu, B., Xu, Z., Cao, J., Wang, Q., Mei, J., Xie, J. 2022. Effects of β-1,3-glucan and ascorbic acid on the nutritional-immune response and antioxidant signaling pathways of live tiger grouper during simulated transport. Aquaculture and Fisheries. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aaf.2022.03.001. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aaf.2022.03.001 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aaf.2022.03.001.">

Xu, C. M., Yu, H. R., Li, L. Y., Li, M., Qiu, X. Y., Fan, X. Q., et al. 2022. Effects of Dietary Vitamin C on the Growth Performance, Biochemical Parameters, and Antioxidant Activity of Coho Salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch (Walbaum, 1792) Postsmolts. Aquaculture Nutrition 2022: 6866578. doi: 10.1155/2022/6866578. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2022/6866578

Yamamoto, F. Y., Castillo, S., de Cruz, C. R., Chen, K., Hume, M. E., Gatlin, D. M. 2020. Synergistic effects of the β-1,3 glucan paramylon and vitamin C on immunological responses of hybrid striped bass (Morone chrysops × M. saxatilis) were pronounced in vitro but more moderate in vivo. Aquaculture 526: 735394. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2020.735394. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2020.735394 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2020.735394.">

Zhou, Q., Wang, L., Wang, H., Xie, F., Wang, T. 2012. Effect of dietary vitamin C on the growth performance and innate immunity of juvenile cobia (Rachycentron canadum). Fish & Shellfish Immunology 32: 969-975. doi: 10.1016/j.fsi.2012.01.024. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2012.01.024




How to Cite

Do Huu, H., Huynh, S. M., Nguyen, T. N. H., Vo, H. T., Tran , T. M. H., Huynh, T. N. D., & Nguyen, T. V. (2024). Effects of single or combination of dietary vitamin C and β-glucan supplementation on golden trevally, \(\textit{Gnathanodon speciosus}\) (Carangidae). Vietnam Journal of Marine Science and Technology, 24(1), 69–76. https://doi.org/10.15625/1859-3097/18449




Most read articles by the same author(s)