Estimation of greenhouse gas emission due to open burning of rice straw using Sentinel data

Nguyen Cong Giang, Nguyen Quyet Chien, Dang Vu Khac
Author affiliations


  • Nguyen Cong Giang Faculty of Civil Engineering, Hanoi Architecture University, Hanoi, Vietnam
  • Nguyen Quyet Chien Faculty of Geography, Hanoi National University of Education, Hanoi, Vietnam
  • Dang Vu Khac Faculty of Geography, Hanoi National University of Education, Hanoi, Vietnam



Straw burning, gas emission, regression, classification, Sentinel-1/2, dry biomass


In recent decades, Vietnam has gradually become a critical global rice producer. During that production process, residual straw becomes an environmental pollutant due to open burning, raising greenhouse gas emissions. This study combines the optical images of the Sentinel-2 satellite and the radar images of the Sentinel-1 satellite to estimate the dry biomass of rice and to determine gas emissions due to rice straw burning over the fields in Quoc Oai district, Hanoi city for urban environmental management purposes. Sentinel-2 images have been classified into the land covers, thereby identifying the areas of ​​rice cultivation and the areas of ​​burned straw. Meanwhile, the Sentinel-1 radar image has been used to calculate the dry biomass of rice due to its ability to penetrate clouds, an obstacle to optical images in tropical regions.

Furthermore, a field trip during harvesting season allows us to measure aboveground dry biomass. Then, the analysis shows a high correlation between the backscatter V.V. and V.H. of the radar image and the in-situ dry biomass (R=0.923 and R2=0.852), with a relatively low average error (RMSE = 6.58 kg/100 m2). By linear regression method, the study found the total rice dry biomass of 28728.5 tons, which was obtained after the Summer rice crop 2020 for the whole Quoc Oai district, of which 2037.91 tons of rice straw have been burned, releasing a large amount of greenhouse gas emission with 2398.6 tons of CO2, 189.5 tons of CO, 18.8673 tons of PM10 dust, 17.2087 tons of PM2.5 dust and some other gases. The identical procedure has also been applied to the western region of Hanoi city center to estimate the amount of gas emissions. This study has proven the effectiveness of an approach and contributed to supporting urban managers in proposing appropriate policies to monitor and protect the environment.


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How to Cite

Nguyen Cong, G., Nguyen Quyet, C., & Dang Vu, K. (2024). Estimation of greenhouse gas emission due to open burning of rice straw using Sentinel data. Vietnam Journal of Earth Sciences.




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