Pore water pressure accumulation and settlement of clays with a wide range of Atterberg’s limits subjected to multi-directional cyclic shear


  • Tran Thanh Nhan University of Sciences, Hue University, 77 Nguyen Hue, Hue, Vietnam
  • Hiroshi Matsuda Yamaguchi University, 2-16-1 Tokiwadai, Ube, Yamaguchi, 755-8611, Japan




Atterberg’s limits, cyclic shear, pore water pressure, post-cyclic settlement


In this study, normally consolidated specimens on four clays with a wide range of Atterberg’s limits were tested by applying several series of undrained multi-directional cyclic shear followed by drainage. The cyclic shear tests were carried out under the shear strain amplitudes (γ = 0.05%-2.00%), number of cycles n = 200 and the phase difference θ = 90o. Then the accumulation of cyclic shear-induced pore water pressure and the post-cyclic settlement in strain (εv, %) were observed and discussed. In conclusion, it is clarified that the pore water pressure ratio (Udyn/σvo) increases with g and the soils with higher Atterberg’s limits show lower Udyn/σvo, and under the multi-directional cyclic shear strain at γ > 0.4%, Hue clay and Kaolinite clay with relatively low plasticity suffer from cyclic failure. In addition, the post-cyclic settlement has a tendency of decreasing with the Atterberg’s limits in the range of plasticity index from Ip = 25.5 to 63.8, meanwhile when Ip < 25.5, different tendencies were observed e.g., Hue clay (with lower Ip) shows a smaller settlement compared with those on Kaolin (with higher Ip). Furthermore, the threshold number of cycles (ntp) and cumulative shear strain (G*tp) for pore water pressure buildup were then clarified.


Download data is not yet available.


Andersen K.H., Brown S.F., Foss I., Pool J.H., Rosen-brand F.W., 1976. Effect of cyclic loading on clay behaviour. Proc. of Conf. Design and Construction of Offshore Structures. Institution of Civil Engi-neers, London, 75–79.

Fujiwara H., Yamanouchi T., Yasuhara K., Ue S., 1985. Consolidation of alluvial clay under repeated loading. Soils and Foundations, 25, 3, 19–30.

Fujiwara H., Ue S., Yasuhara K., 1987. Secondary compression of clay under repeated loading. Soils and Foundations, 27(2,) 21–30.

Fukutake K., Matsuoka H.A., 1989. Unified law for dilatancy under multi-directional simple shearing. J JSCE Div., C 412(III-1), 143–151 (in Japanese).

Hsu C.C., Vucetic M., 2006. Threshold shear strain for cyclic pore-water pressure in cohesive soils. Jour-nal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engi-neering, 132(10), 1325–1335.

Hyde A.F.L., Yasuhara K., Hirao K., 1993. Stability criteria for marine clay under one-way cyclic load-ing. J. Geotechnical Eng., ASCE, 119(11), 1771–1788.

Matsuda H., 1997. Estimation of post-earthquake set-tlement-time relations of clay layers. Journal of JSCE Division C, JSCE, 568(III-39), 41–48 (in Japanese).

Mendoza M.J., Auvinet G., 1988. The Mexico Earth-quake of September 19, 1985-Behaviour of build-ing foundations in Mexico City. Earthquake Spec-tra, 4(4), 835–852.

Nhan T.T., Matsuda H., Thien D.Q., Tuyen T.H., An T.T.P., 2012. New criteria for cyclic failure of normally consolidated clays and sands subjected to uniform and irregular cyclic shear. Proc. of the In-ternational workshop Hue Geo-Engineering 2012, Vietnam, 127–138.

Nhan T.T., 2013. Study on excess pore water pressure and post-cyclic settlement of normally consolidat-ed clay subjected to uniform and irregular cyclic shears. Doctoral dissertation, Yamaguchi Universi-ty, Japan, 131pp.

Nhan T.T., Matsuda H., Hara H., Sato H., 2015. Nor-malized pore water pressure ratio and post-cyclic settlement of saturated clay subjected to undrained uni-directional and multi-directional cyclic shears. 10th Asian Regional Conference of IAEG, Kyoto, Japan, Tp3-16-1081481, 1–6.

Nhan T.T., Matsuda H., Sato H., 2016. A pore water pressure model for cyclic shear strain on clays, concerning the effects of cyclic shear duration and Atterberg’s limits. The International Conference on Geotechnics for Sustainable Infrastructure De-velopment - GEOTEC HANOI 2016, Hanoi, Vi-etnam, 1045–1054.

Nhan T.T., Matsuda H., 2017. Post-cyclic recompres-sion of clays subjected to undrained cyclic shear.

Geotechnical Frontiers 2017, Florida, USA, Ge-otechnical Special Publication (GSP281)-ASCE, 109–120.

Nhan T.T., Matsuda H., Sato H., 2017. A model for multi-directional cyclic shear-induced pore water pressure and settlement on clays. Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering, 15(7), 2761–2784.

Ohara S., Matsuda H., Kondo Y., 1984. Cyclic simple shear tests on saturated clay with drainage. Journal of JSCE Division C, JSCE, 352/III-2, 149–158 (in Japanese).

Ohara S., Matsuda H., 1988. Study on the settlement of saturated clay layer induced by cyclic shear. Soils and Foundations, 28(3), 103–113.

Sasaki Y., Taniguchi E., Matsuo O., Tateyama S., 1980. Damage of soil structures by earthquakes. Technical Note of PWRI, 1576, Public Works Re-search Institute (in Japanese).

Suzuki T., 1984. Settlement of saturated clays under dynamic stress history. Journal of the Japan Socie-ty of Engineering Geology, 25(3), 21–31 (in Japa-nese).

Yasuhara K., Andersen K.H., 1991. Recompression of normally consolidated clay after cyclic loading. Soils and Foundations, 31(1), 83–94.

Yasuhara K., Hirao K., Hyde A.F.L., 1992. Effects of cyclic loading on undrained strength and com-pressibility of clay. Soils and Foundations, 32(1), 100–116.

Zeevaert L., 1983. Foundation engineering for difficult subsoil conditions. Van Nostrand Co. Ltd (2nd Edition), New York, USA.




How to Cite

Nhan, T. T., & Matsuda, H. (2020). Pore water pressure accumulation and settlement of clays with a wide range of Atterberg’s limits subjected to multi-directional cyclic shear. Vietnam Journal of Earth Sciences, 42(1), 93–104. https://doi.org/10.15625/0866-7187/42/1/14761