A numerical investigation of the impact of shield machine’s operation parameters on the settlements above twin stacked tunnels - A case study of Ho Chi Minh urban railway Line 1


  • Ngoc Anh Do Hanoi University of Mining and Geology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Department of Underground and Mining Construction, Hanoi, Vietnam
  • Daniel Dias 1-Grenoble Alpes University, Laboratory 3SR, Grenoble, France; 2-Antea Group, Antony, France
  • Trong Thang Dang Vietnam Institute for Building Science and Technology - IBST, Hanoi, Vietnam




twin stacked tunnels, numerical simulation, shield operation, face pressure, grouting pressure, shield length


Three-dimensional finite difference calculations are proposed to investigate the influence of operation parameters of the shield machines during twin stacked tunnel excavation on the surface settlements. The numerical model is validated by experimental data obtained from Hochiminh’s metro line 1 project, used as a reference case in this study. The parametric study focuses on the influence of the face support pressure, the grouting pressure, and the shield’s length. The numerical results indicated that a decrease does not always follow an increase in surface settlements' face and grouting pressure. A shorter shield machine causes smaller surface settlements to develop over single lower and twin stacked tunnels.


Download data is not yet available.


Chakeri H., Hasanpour R., Hindistan M., Ünver B., 2011. Analysis of interaction between tunnels in soft ground by 3D numerical modeling. Bull. Eng. Geol. Environ., 70, 439-448.

Chakeri H., Ozcelik Y., Unver B., 2013. Effects of important factors on surface settlement prediction for metro tunnel excavated by EPB. Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, 36, 14-23.

Chakeri H., Ozcelik Y., Unver B., 2014. Investigation of ground surface settlement in twin tunnels driven with EPBM in urban area. Arab. J. Geosci. Doi: 10.1007/s12517-014-1722-2.

Chapman D.N., Ahn S.K., Hunt D.V., 2007. Investigating ground movements caused by the construction of multiple tunnels in soft ground using laboratory model tests. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 44(6), 631-643.

Chen R.P., Zhu J., Liu W., Tang X.W., 2011. Ground movement induced by parallel EPB tunnels in silty soils. Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, 26, 163-171.

Do N.A., Dias D., Oreste P.P., Djeran-Maigre I., 2013. Three-dimensional numerical simulation for mechanized tunnelling in soft ground: The influence of the joint pattern. Acta Geotechnica, 9(4), 673-694.

Do N.A., Dias D., Oreste P.P., Djeran-Maigre I., 2014. Three-dimensional Numerical Simulation of a Mechanized Twin Tunnels in Soft Ground. Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, 42, 40-51.

Do N.A., Dias D., Oreste P.P., 2014b. Three-dimensional numerical simulation of mechanized twin stacked tunnels in soft ground. Journal of Zhejiang University Science A, 15(11), 896-913.

Ercelebi S.G., Copour H., Ocak I., 2011. Surface settlement predictions for Istanbul metro tunnels excavated by EPB-TBM. Springer. Environ. Earth Sci., 62, 357-365.

Hanoi Metropolitan Railway Management Board (MRB). Hanoi Pilot Light Metro Line 3, Section Nhon-Hanoi Railway Station-Technical Design of Underground Section-Line and Stations, Package number: HPLMLP/CP-03.2012.

Hasanpour R., Chakeri H., Ozcelik Y., Denek H., 2012. Evaluation of surface settlements in the Istanbul metro in terms of analytical, numerical and direct measurements. Bull. Eng. Geol. Environ., 71, 499-510.

Ho Chi Minh City Urban Railway Construction Project (HUP), Ben Thanh - Suoi Tien Section (Line 1). Contract Package-1b: Civil (Underground Section KM 0+615 to KM 2+360): Bored tunnel - Segmental lining - Technical design report, 2016.

Itasca Consulting Group, 2017. FLAC fast Lagrangian analysis of continua, version 6.0. User’s manual.

Janin J.P., Dias D., Emeriault F., Kastner R., Bissonnais H., Guilloux A., 2015. Numerical back-analysis of the southern Toulon tunnel measurements: a comparison of 3D and 2D approaches, Engineering Geology, 195, 42-52.

Kasper T., Meschke G., 2006a. A numerical study of the effect of soil and grout material properties and cover depth in shield tunnelling. Comput Geotech, 33(4-5), 234-247.

Kasper T., Meschke G., 2006b. On the influence of face pressure, grouting pressure and TBM design in soft ground tunnelling. Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, 21, 160-171.

Kim K., Oh J., Lee H., Kim D., Choi H., 2018. Critical face pressure and backfill pressure in shield TBM tunneling on soft ground. Geomechanics and Engineering, 15(3), 823-831.

Kim S.H., Burd H.J., Milligan G.W., 1998. Model testing of closely spaced tunnels in clay. Geotechnique, 48(3), 375-388.

Lu H., Shi J., Wang Y., Wang R., 2019. Centrifuge modeling of tunneling-induced ground surface settlement in sand. Underground Space, 4(4). Doi.org/10.1016/j.undsp.2019.03.007.

Ly H.B., Nguyen H.L., Do M.N., 2021. Finite element modeling of fluid flow in fractured porous media using unified approach. Vietnam Journal of Earth Sciences, 43 (1), 13-22.

Melis M., Medina L., Rodriguez J., 2002. Prediction and analysis of subsidence induced by shield tunnelling in the Madrid Metro extension. Can. Geotech. J., 39, 1273-1287.

Mirhabibi A., Soroush A., 2013. Effects of building three-dimensional modeling type on twin tunneling-induced ground settlement. Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, 38, 224-234.

Ng C.W., Lu H., Peng S.Y., 2013. Three-dimensional centrifuge modelling of the efects of twin tunnelling on an existing pile. Tunnelling and Underground Space, 35, 189-199.

Ocak I., 2013. Interaction of longitudinal surface settlements for twin tunnels in shallow and soft soils: the case of Istanbul Metro. Environ. Earth Sci., 69, 1673-1683.

Sahoo J.P., Kumar J., 2018. Required Lining Pressure for the Stability of Twin Circular Tunnels in Soils. International Journal of Geomechanics, 18(7), 04018069. Doi:10.1061/(asce)gm.1943-5622.0001196.

Shivaei S., Hataf N., Pirastehfar K., 2020. 3D numerical investigation of the coupled interaction behavior between mechanized twin tunnels and groundwater - A case study: Shiraz metro line. Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, 103. Doi.org/10.1016/j.tust.2020.103458.

Suwansawat S., Einstein H.H., 2007. Describing settlement troughs over twin tunnels using a superposition technique. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 133(4), 445-468.

Tran T.N., Hiroshi M., 2020. Pore water pressure accumulation and settlement of clays with a wide range of Atterberg’s limits subjected to multi-directional cyclic shear. Vietnam Journal of Earth Sciences, 42 (1), 93-104.

Wang H.N., Wu L., Jiang M.J., Song F., 2018. Analytical stress and displacement due to twin tunneling in an elastic semi‐infinite ground subjected to surcharge loads. International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics, 42(6), 809-828. Doi:10.1002/nag.2764.

Wang J.G., Kong S.L., Leung C.F., 2003. Twin tunnels-induced ground settlement in soft soil. Proceeding of the Sino-Japanese Symposium on Geotechnical Engineering, Beijing, China, 241-244.

Yamaguchi I., Yamazaki I., Kiritani Y., 1998. Study of ground-tunnel interactions of four shield tunnels driven in close proximity, in relation to design and construction of parallel shield tunnels. Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, 13(3), 289-304.

Yang X.L., Wang J.M., 2011. Ground movement prediction for tunnels using simplified procedure. Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, 26, 462-471.

Zhang Z., et al., 2018. Complex variable solutions for soil and liner deformation due to tunneling in clays. International Journal of Geomechanics, 18(7), Doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)GM.1943-5622.0001197.

Zhang Z., Huang M., Zhang C., Jiang K., 2020. Complex Variable Solution for Twin Tunneling-Induced Ground Movements Considering Nonuniform Convergence Pattern. International Journal of Geomechanics, 20(6). Doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)GM.1943-5622.0001700.

Zhao C., Schmüdderich C., Barciaga T., Röchter L., 2019. Response of building to shallow tunnel excavation in different types of

soil. Computers and Geotechnics, 115. Doi.org/10.1016/j.compgeo.2019.103165.




How to Cite

Do Ngoc, A., Dias, D. ., & Trong Dang, T. (2021). A numerical investigation of the impact of shield machine’s operation parameters on the settlements above twin stacked tunnels - A case study of Ho Chi Minh urban railway Line 1. Vietnam Journal of Earth Sciences. https://doi.org/10.15625/2615-9783/16442