The interaction of tide and river flow on water quality in Hai Phong coastal waters (Lach Huyen - Do Son) drawn from field observation

Vu Thanh Ca, Mai Van Tien, Nguyen Bich Ngoc, Nguyen Khac Doan, Hoang Truong
Author affiliations


  • Vu Thanh Ca Faculty of Environment, Hanoi University of Natural Resources and Environment, Hanoi, Vietnam
  • Mai Van Tien Faculty of Environment, Hanoi University of Natural Resources and Environment, Hanoi, Vietnam
  • Nguyen Bich Ngoc Faculty of Environment, Hanoi University of Natural Resources and Environment, Hanoi, Vietnam
  • Nguyen Khac Doan Vietnam Institute of Seas and Islands, Hanoi, Vietnam
  • Hoang Truong Vietnam Institute of Seas and Islands, Hanoi, Vietnam



Nutrient pollution, nutrient concentration, tidal and river influence, estuarine water, eutrophication.


This paper presents the results of a study on the impacts of the interaction of tide and river flow on water quality at the Hai Phong coastal water, outside the Nam Trieu estuary and Lach Huyen, drawn from field observation from October 14, 2022, to October 17, 2022. During the field observation, the dissolved oxygen concentration was measured, and water samples were taken at the surface, mid-depth, and bottom of 8 observational points at 1:00, 7:00, 13:00, and 19:00 h. Five sewage wastewater samples at Do Son coast and 6 coastal and river water samples were also taken. The collected seawater samples were laboratory analyzed to determine the concentration of BOD5, COD, TN, and TP. Additionally, the concentration of ions NH4+, NO2-, NO3-, and PO43- are determined by analyzing collected coastal, river, and sewage water samples and seawater samples at mid-depth at all observational points in a laboratory. It was found that the concentration of essential nutrients and other environmental components in wastewater samples generally does not exceed those specified in Vietnam regulations. The discharge of wastewater during the field observation was minimal. Thus it could be expected that the wastewater would not have a notable influence on seawater quality in the marine study area. Consequently, the study area’s primary source of nutrient pollutants was rivers. Time variation of the concentration of environmental components reveals that the nutrient concentration in the marine study area strongly influences by the interaction of the tide and river flow. The concentration of dissolved oxygen and major nutrient components in seawater at 8 points was within the limit of Vietnam standard for coastal water. However, significant nutrient concentration exceeds thresholds for eutrophication.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...


Dürr, H. H., Laruelle, G. G., van Kempen, C. M., Slomp, C. P., Meybeck, M., and Middelkoop, H., 2011. Worldwide typology of nearshore coastal systems: defining the estuarine filter of river inputs to the oceans. Estuaries and coasts, 34, 441–458.

Du, H. T., and Kunzmann, A., 2015. The sediment load and deposition by river discharge and their relation to organochlorine pesticides pollutants in the sediment bottom of Nha Trang bay, Vietnam. Ocean Science Journal, 50, 455-466.

Srilert, C., and Van, T. P., 2022. Spatial and temporal variabilities of surface water and sediment pollution at the main tidal-influenced river in Ca Mau Peninsular, Vietnamese Mekong Delta. Journal of Hydrology: Regional Studies, 41, 101082.

Vale, C., and Sundby, B., 1987. Suspended sediment fluctuations in the Tagus estuary on semi-diurnal and fortnightly time scales. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 25(5), 495–508.

Vale, C., Cortesão, C., Castro, O., and Ferreira, A. M., 1993. Suspended-sediment response to pulses in river flow and semidiurnal and fortnightly tidal variations in a mesotidal estuary. Marine Chemistry, 43(1–4), 21–31.

Liangchao, M., Caodong, J., Dongfeng, L., Hongwu, Z., and Zihao, L., 2021. Sediment transport and diffusion in the Yellow River estuary in 2018 based on numerical analysis. In IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science (Vol. 768, No. 1, p. 012035). IOP Publishing.

Cao, B., Qiu, J., Zhang, W., Xie, X., Lu, X., Yang, X., and Li, H., 2022. Retrieval of Suspended Sediment Concentrations in the Pearl River Estuary Using Multi-Source Satellite Imagery. Remote Sensing, 14(16), 3896.

Tran, D. L., Chu, T. C., and Do, T. T. H., 2010. Development of indicators for sustainable use of coastal wetlands in the West of Bac Bo Gulf. Synthesis Report of the scientific and technology research project VAST 08–09. Institute of Marine Environment and Resources. (in Vietnamese).

Tran, D. L., and Nguyen, D. V., 2015. Assessment of the sustainable use of intertidal wetland areas in North Vietnam. Publishing House of Science and Technology. (in Vietnamese).

Nguyen, V. Q., Nguyen, D. T., Bui, V. V., Dau, V. T., Cao, T. T. T., Pham, V. C., Chu, T. C., Vu, M. H., Tran, M. H., and Nguyen, T. M. H., 2021. Research on the variety of ecosystems on estuarine deposited coastal flats in Hai Phong. Final report of the research project number DT.MT.2019.842. (in Vietnamese).

Tran, D. T. (Eds.), 2014. Nature and environment of the coastal area of Hai Phong. Publishing House of Science and Technology, 309 p. (in Vietnamese).

Tran, D. T., 2004. Report on the scientific research “General assessment on the potential, use, and management of coastal wetland of Hai Phong, and propose a reasonable use”. Institute of Marine Natural Resources and Environment. 90 p. (in Vietnamese).

Vu, T. C., and Nguyen, Q. A., 2023. Research on the development of an effective integrated coastal management for Cat Ba island, Hai Phong city. Journal of Natural Resource and Environment, 2(3), 51–52. (in Vietnamese).

Cao, T. T. T., 2007. Assessment of the accumulative and decomposed potential of pollutants in the estuarine and coastal sea areas of Vietnam. Research project report at the Institute of Marine Natural Resources and Environment. 127 p. (in Vietnamese).

Cao, T. T. T., and Nguyen, T. H., 2010. Experiment on the assessment of the environmental loading capacity of Bach Dang Estuary and use it in environmental protection, and sustainable development. Research project report at the Institute of Marine Natural Resources and Environment. 126 p. (in Vietnamese).

Cao, T. T. T., 2012. Environmental status of Cat Ba island ad some management measures. Marine Natural Resources and Environment, 16, 71–81. Publishing House of Science and Technology. (in Vietnamese).

Luu, V. D. et al., 2008. Assessment of the present status and time variation of environment, proposal of environmental management and control measures for coastal lagoons in Vietnam. Research project report at the Institute of Marine Natural Resources and Environment. 120 p. (in Vietnamese).

Luu, V. D., Tran, D. T., Cao, T. T. T., and Le, X. S., 2016. Assessment of environmental loading capacity of representative coastal marine areas. Report of a National research project in 2013–2015. (in Vietnamese).

Nguyen, D. C., 1998. Survey and investigation on the environmental quality and nutrient dynamics of estuaries in the Red river delta. Report of a National basic survey project. (in Vietnamese).

Lan, T. D., Olsson, E. G. A., and Alpokay, S. (Eds.), 2014. Environmental Stresses and Resource Use in Coastal Urban and Peri-Urban Regions: Dpsir Approach to SECOA’s 17 Case Studies. Sapienza Università Editrice.

Khanh, D. G., Huong, T. T. T., Vinh, V. D., and Lan, T. D., 2019. Zoning marine disposal for dredged material management: A case study in Vietnam. Sustainable Marine Structures, 1(2), 19–27.

Tran, D. T., Nguyen, T. P. H, and Cao T. T, 2008. Assessment of the status of environmental pollution and degradation in the estuaries of Cam and Bach Dang rivers and proposal of environmental protection measures. Environmental protection project report at the Institute of Marine Natural Resources and Environment. 350 p. (in Vietnamese).

North Vietnam Marine Safety Corporation, 2022. Environmental impact assessment report of the project “Dredge and maintenance of Hai Phong Marine Transport Route 2021 (Lach Huyen Section)”. (in Vietnamese).

North Vietnam Marine Safety Corporation, 2023. Environmental impact assessment report of the project “Dredge and maintenance of Hai Phong Marine Transport Route 2022 (Lach Huyen Section)”. (in Vietnamese).

Le, T. Q. N., Thao, P. T. M., Trinh, L. T., and Lam, M. H., 2022. Study on the present status of plastic wastes at some tidal ecological systems belonging to Cat Ba islands, Cat Hai District, Hai Phong City. Natural Resource and Environment Scientific Journal, (10), 10–18. (in Vietnamese).

Dinh, V. U., 2009. Model for sediment transport and bottom morphology change applied in estuarine marine area of Hai Phong Port. VNU Journal of Science, 25(1S), 133–139. (in Vietnamese).

Pham, V. T., 2012. Application of VNU/MDEC model to calculate hydrodynamic and sediment transport regime at riverine and coastal marine areas of Hai Phong. Master thesis. VNU University of Science, Vietnam National University, Hanoi. (in Vietnamese).

Ho, V. C., Tran, A. T., and Pham, H. A., 2016. Simulation of seasonal transport of turbidity transmission in the Do Son - Hai Phong and coastal area and surrounding sites by a 3D calculation model. Vietnam Journal of Science and Technology, 6(7), 19–23. (in Vietnamese).

National Standard TCVN 5998:1995 ISO 5667-9:L992, 1995. Water quality - Sampling - Guidance on sampling from seawater.

National Standard TCVN 6663-3:2016 (ISO 5667-3:2012) Water quality - Sampling - Part 3: Preservation and handling of water samples.

Simon, F. X., Penru, Y., Guastalli, A. R., Llorens, J., and Baig, S., 2011. Improvement of the analysis of the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) of Mediterranean seawater by seeding control. Talanta, 85(1), 527–532.

Vietnam Standard TCVN 6186:1996/ISO 8467:1993 (E) Water quality - Determination of permanganate index.

TCVN 6491:1999/ISO 6060:1989 Water quality - Determination of the chemical oxygen demand.

Vietnam Standard TCVN 6638: 2000/ISO10048: 1991 Water quality - Determination of nitrogen - Catalytic digestion after reduction with Devarda’s alloy.

National Standard TCVN 6202: 2008/ISO 6878: 2004 Water quality - Determination of phosphorus - Ammonium molybdate spectrometric method.

Rice, E. W., Bridgewater, L., and American Public Health Association (Eds.), 2012. Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater (Vol. 10). Washington, DC: American public health association.

Vietnam Standard TCVN 6180:1996/ISO 7890-3:1988 (E) Water quality - Determination of nitrate. Spectrometric method using sulfosalicylic acid.

Vietnam Standard TCVN 6202:2008 ISO 6878:2004 Water quality - Determination of phosphorus - Ammonium molybdate spectrometric method.

QCVN 14:2008/BTNMT National technical regulation on Domestic wastewater.

QCVN 10:2023/BTNMT National technical regulation on Marine water quality.

Topcu, D., and Brockmann, U., 2021. Consistency of thresholds for eutrophication assessments, examples and recommendations. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 193, 1–15.

Poikane, S., Kelly, M. G., Várbíró, G., Borics, G., Erős, T., Hellsten, S., Kolada, A., Lukács, B. A., Solheim, A. L., López, J. P., Willby, N. J., Wolfram, G., and Phillips, G., 2022. Estimating nutrient thresholds for eutrophication management: Novel insights from understudied lake types. Science of the Total Environment, 827, 154242.

European Environmental Agency, 2019. Nutrient Enrichment and Eutrophication in Europe’s Seas. Moving Towards a Healthy Marine Environment.

Karydis, M., 2009. Eutrophication assessment of coastal waters based on indicators: a literature review. Global Nest Journal, 11(4), 373–390.

Paerl, H. W., 2018. Why does N-limitation persist in the world's marine waters?. Marine Chemistry, 206, 1–6.

Qi, J., Deng, L., Song, Y., Qi, W., and Hu, C., 2022. Nutrient Thresholds Required to Control Eutrophication: Does It Work for Natural Alkaline Lakes?. Water, 14(17), 2674.

Yin, K., Lin, Z., and Ke, Z., 2004. Temporal and spatial distribution of dissolved oxygen in the Pearl River Estuary and adjacent coastal waters. Continental Shelf Research, 24(16), 1935–1948.

Mama, A. C., Ghepdeu, G. F. Y., Tankoua, O. F., Bonga, M. D., Bodo, W.

K. A., Mandeng, T. I., Edoa, F. D. O, Tangko, N. C., and Ndam, J. R. N., 2023. Effects of the tide on the temporal and spatial physicochemical structure of the Kienké river estuary (South Atlantic Coast of Cameroon, Kribi) and its phytoplankton. Oceanological and Hydrobiological Studies, 52(1), 20–40.

Tran, D. L, and Nguyen, T. P. H., 2010. Rapid assessment on pollutant sources from land causing pollution in marine and coastal areas of Vietnam. Synthesis project report at the Vietnam Administration of Seas and Islands. (in Vietnamese).

Cao, T. T. T, and Nguyen, M. T., 2009. Assessment of the agglomerate potential of pollutants in Bach Dang and Ba Lat estuaries. Proceedings of Marine Natural Resources and Environment. pp. 143–150. (in Vietnamese).

Dao, T. T., Hien, B. T. T., and Nguyen, C. H., 2016. Integrated river basin management of Vu Gia-Thu Bon and coastal Quang Nam-Da Nang, Viet Nam. Hanns Seidle Stiftung, DE, Mangroves for the Future.




How to Cite

Vu , T. C., Mai , V. T., Nguyen, B. N., Nguyen , K. D., & Hoang , T. (2023). The interaction of tide and river flow on water quality in Hai Phong coastal waters (Lach Huyen - Do Son) drawn from field observation. Vietnam Journal of Marine Science and Technology, 23(2), 125–143.




Most read articles by the same author(s)