Estimation of the spawning ground of some fish species in the Nha Trang bay


  • Quang Van Vo Institute of Oceanography, VAST, Vietnam
  • Hoa Hong Thi Tran Institute of Oceanography, VAST, Vietnam
  • Thinh Cong Tran Institute of Oceanography, VAST, Vietnam
  • Thao Thu Thi Le Institute of Oceanography, VAST, Vietnam



Spawning ground, red anchovy, parrotfishes, Nha Trang bay.


The paper presents the results of determining the spawning grounds of some fish species in Nha Trang bay MPA, which were sampled in 9/2018, 11/2018, 5/2019 and 7/2019. The analysis results are based on the distribution of the general density and the developmental stages, analysis of decision trees from egg density, location of stations and months by CHAID (Chi-square Automatic Interaction Detector), allowing a relatively accurate estimate of the spawning ground of the red anchovy (Encrasicholina punctifer Fowler, 1938) and the species of the genus Scarus. As a result, the main spawning grounds for red anchovy were the east of Hon Rua and the northeast of Hon Tam and that of Scarus is the southwest of Hon Mun island.


Download data is not yet available.


[1] Breen, P., Posen, P., and Righton, D., 2015. Temperate Marine Protected Areas and highly mobile fish: A review. Ocean & Coastal Management, 105, 75–83.

[2] Planes, S., Jones, G. P., and Thorrold, S. R., 2009. Larval dispersal connects fish populations in a network of marine protected areas. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106(14), 5693–5697.

[3] Hilborn, R., Stokes, K., Maguire, J. J., Smith, T., Botsford, L. W., Mangel, M., ... and Cochrane, K. L., 2004. When can marine reserves improve fisheries management?. Ocean & Coastal Management, 47(3–4), 197–205.

[4] Dayton, P. K., Sala, E., Tegner, M. J., and Thrush, S., 2000. Marine reserves: parks, baselines, and fishery enhancement. Bulletin of Marine Science, 66(3), 617–634.

[5] Cowen, R. K., and Sponaugle, S., 2009. Larval Dispersal and Marine Population Connectivity. Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci., 1, 443–66.

[6] Tran Cong Thinh, Vo Van Quang, Tran Thi Hong Hoa, Le Thi Thu Thao and Nguyen Phi Uy Vu, 2015. Status and fluctuation of catch of the pelagic fisheries in Nha Trang bay and adjacent waters in the Southwest monsoon 2015. Collection of Marine Reseach Works, 21(2), 167–175. (in Vietnamese).

[7] Dam Hai Van and Nguyen Duc Si, 2016. Solutions for effective exploitation management and marine resources protection within Nha Trang bay Marine Protected Area. Journal of Fisheries Science and Technology, Nha Trang University, 1, 152–159. (in Vietnamese).

[8] Ton Nu My Nga and Nguyen Thi Thao, 2018. Management status of Nha Trang bay Marine Protected Area after over 15 years of establishment and proposed solutions for management. Journal of Fisheries Science and Technology, Nha Trang University, 3, 44–52. (in Vietnamese).

[9] Vo Van Quang, Le Thi Thu Thao, Tran Thi Hong Hoa and Tran Cong Thinh, 2015. Fluctuation of fish eggs and larvae in coral reefs of Nha Trang bay and adjacent waters. Collection of Marine Reseach Works, 21(2), 106–117. (in Vietnamese).

[10] State Science and Technology Committee, 1981. Provisional Regulations for Integrated Marine Investigation: Rules for the investigation of fish eggs and larvae. QPVN 20–79. Hanoi, pp. 107–122.

[11] Delsman, H. C., 1929. Fish eggs and larvae from the Java Sea. Treubia, 11(2), 275–286.

[12] Okiyama, M. (Ed.), 1988. An atlas of the early stage fishes in Japan. Tokai University Press.

[13] Leis, J. M., and Rennis, D. S., 1983. The larvae of Indo-Pacific coral reef fishes.

[14] Leis, J. M., and Trnski, T., 1989. The larvae of Indo-Pacific shorefishes. Honolulu. New South Wales University Press, Sydney & University Hawaii Press, 371 p.

[15] Moser, H. G., 1996. The early stages of fishes in the California current region. Calcofi Atlas, 33, 1505 p.

[16] Shao, K. T., Yang, J. S., Chen, K. C., and Lee, Y. S., 2001. An identification guide of marine fish eggs from Taiwan. Institute of Zoology Academia Sinica and Taiwan Power Company, Taipei.

[17] Leis, J. M., and Carson-EWart, B. M., 2004. The Larvae of Indo-Pacific Coastal Fishes: An ldentification Guide toMarine Fish Larvae, 2nd Bril.

[18] Vo Van Quang, Tran Thi Le Van and Nguyen Huu Phung, 2010. Atlas of plankton in coral reefs: fish egg and larvae in the coral reefs of the Cu Lao Cham, Cu Lao Cau and Con Dao islands. In Plankton of the Vietnamese reefs: Cu Lao Cham, Cu Lao Cau and Con Dao. Doan Nhu Hai & Nguyen Ngoc Lam (editor). Publishing House for Science and Technology, Hanoi, pp. 234–257. (in Vietnamese).

[19] Mwaluma, J., Kaunda-Arara, B., and Strydom, N. A., 2014. A guide to commonly occurring larval stages of fishes in Kenyan coastal waters. Institute of Marine Sciences, University of Dar es Salaam and Western Indian Ocean Marine Science Association.

[20] Rass, T. S. 1972. Ichthyoplankton from Cuban waters; pelagic fish eggs. Tran. Inst. Ocean. Pub. Moscow; Ibid, 93, 5–41 (in Russian).

[21] Kendall Jr, A. W., 1984. Early life history stages of fishes and their characters. Ontogeny and Systematics of Fishes, 11–22.

[22] Vo Van Quang and Tran Thi Le Van, 2010. Morphology and influence of temperature on embryonic development of red anchovy eggs (Ecrasicholina punctifer). Collection of Marine Reseach Works, 17, 99–107. (in Vietnamese).

[23] Lasker, R., 1985. An egg production method for estimating spawning biomass of pelagic fish: application to the northern anchovy, Engraulis mordax. US Dep. Commer. NOAA Tech. Rep. NMFS, 36, 1–99.

[24] Addinsoft, 2019. XLSTAT statistical and data analysis solution.

[25] Zar, J. H., 2010. Biostatistical analysis fifth edition. Pearson Education Upper Saddie River, New Jersey, USA. Santos-Fita D, Naranjo EJ, Estrada E, Mariaca R, Bello E (2015) Symbolism and ritual practices related to hunting in maya communities from central Quintana Roo, Mexico. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, 11, 71.

[26] Vo Van Quang and Tran Thi Le Van, 2005. Fluctuation density of eggs of red anchovy (Stolephorus zollengeri Bleeker, 1849) in the waters of Nha Trang bay - Khanh Hoa. Vietnam Journal of Marine Science and Technology, 4(5), 129–138. (in Vietnamese).

[27] Dang Do Hung Viet, 2013. Studies on density change and distribution of fish eggs and larvae in order to definitons of spawning hold of coral reef fishes in Nha Trang MPA. The Proceeding of 5th National Conference on Ecology and Biological Resources, Hanoi, pp. 1715–1722. (in Vietnamese).

[28] Riede, K., 2004. Global register of migratory species: from global to regional scales. Final report of the R&D-Projekt 808 05 081. Federal Agency for Nature Conservation.

[29] Le Trong Phan and Nguyen Van Luc, 1991. Some aspects of the biology of Stolephorid anchovies from the coastal waters of Vietnam. Collection of Marine Reseach Works, 3, 51–58. (in Vietnamese).

[30] Allen, G. R., Steene, R., Humann, P., and Deloach, N., 2003. Reef fish identification: tropical Pacific. New World Publications Incorporated.