Preliminary results on microplastic pollution from agricultural soil in Vietnam: Distribution, characterization, and ecological risk assessment
Keywords:Agricultural soil, ecological risk, farmland, microplastic, polymer
Microplastics (MPs) have been extensively studied in aquatic systems; however, their presence in general agricultural systems and in particular, soil still needs comprehensive understanding. This study conducted a field survey at 25 sites to investigate the abundance of MPs in agricultural soil. The MPs in these soil samples were separated using sieves and filters by the density separation method with NaCl solution (d = 1.2 g/cm3). The density of MPs in agricultural soils ranged from 1,700 items/kg to 38,800 items/kg, with an average of 11,716 ±10,726 items/kg. The black-colored MPs were found to be dominant, followed by white, purple, red, and blue. The fibers represented most of the MPs' shapes observed in this research (77.9±17.4%). MPs in agricultural soil samples were tiny particles with sizes of <1,000 µm and 1,000-2,000 µm. A significant difference was observed in the concentration of MPs in locations near and far from residential areas and manufacturing facilities. The average concentration of MPs in the soils adjacent to the residential and manufacturing facilities and near the agricultural solid waste collection sites was 21,471±12,729 items/kg and 20,188±4,403 items/kg, much higher than in distant these locations at 4,418±1,573 items/kg. These results suggest that domestic, industrial, and agricultural activities could contribute to MP pollution in agricultural soil. The ecological dangers MPs pose in terrestrial and aquatic environments have drawn much attention from the scientific community. This work represented the first effort to comprehend the ecological risk of MPs on selected samples of Vietnamese agricultural soil. According to the Pollution Load Index (PLI) values, most agricultural soil samples in this study were contaminated with MPs at hazard level IV. The potential ecological risk index (PERI) values of agricultural soil samples from nearby residential, industrial, or agricultural solid waste areas indicated a higher ecological risk.
Amrutha K., Warrier A.K., 2020. The first report on the source-to-sink characterization of microplastic pollution from a riverine environment in tropical India. Science of The Total Environment, 739, 140377.
Antunes J.C., Frias J.G.L., Micaelo A.C, P. Sobral P., 2013. Resin pellets from beaches of the Portuguese coast and adsorbed persistent organic pollutants. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 130, 62-69.
Avio C.G., Gorbi S., Milan M., Benedetti M., Fattorini D., d'Errico G., Pauletto M., Bargelloni L., Regoli F., 2015. Pollutants bioavailability and toxicological risk from microplastics to marine mussels. Environmental Pollution, 198, 211-222.
Bi D., Wang B., Li Z., Zhang Y., Ke X., Huang C., Liu W., Luo Y., Christie P., Wu L., 2023. Occurrence and distribution of microplastics in coastal plain soils under three land-use types. Science of The Total Environment, 855, 159023.
Browne M.A., Crump P., Niven S.J., Teuten E., Tonkin A., Galloway T., Thompson R., 2011. Accumulation of Microplastic on Shorelines Woldwide: Sources and Sinks. Environmental Science & Technology, 45(21), 9175-9179.
Cao L., Wu D., Liu P., Hu W., Xu L., Sun Y., Wu Q., Tian K., Huang B., Yoon S.J., Kwon B.O., Khim J.S., 2021. Occurrence, distribution and affecting factors of microplastics in agricultural soils along the lower reaches of Yangtze River, China. Science of The Total Environment, 794, 148694.
Chouchene K., Nacci T., Modugno F., Castelvetro V., Ksibi M., 2022. Soil contamination by microplastics in relation to local agricultural development as revealed by FTIR, ICP-MS and pyrolysis-GC/MS. Environmental Pollution, 303, 119016.
Corradini F., Casado F., Leiva V., Huerta-Lwanga E., Geissen V., 2021. Microplastics occurrence and frequency in soils under different land uses on a regional scale. Science of The Total Environment, 752, 141917.
Ding L., Zhang S., Wang X., Yang X., Zhang C., Qi Y., Guo X., 2020. The occurrence and distribution characteristics of microplastics in the agricultural soils of Shaanxi Province, in north-western China. Science of The Total Environment, 720, 137525.
Doan T.O., Duong T.T., Nguyen T.N.H., Hoang T.Q., Le T.P.Q., Duong H.P., Le P.T., Bui H.T., 2021. Preliminary results on microplastics in surface water from the downstream of the Day River. Vietnam J. Earth Sci., 43(4), 485-495.
Feng S., Lu H., Liu Y., 2021. The occurrence of microplastics in farmland and grassland soils in the Qinghai-Tibet plateau: Different land use and mulching time in facility agriculture. Environmental Pollution, 279, 116939.
Haque M.R., Ali M.M., Ahmed W., Siddique M.A.B., Akbor M.A., Islam M.S., M. M. Rahman M.M., 2023. Assessment of microplastics pollution in aquatic species (fish, crab, and snail), water, and sediment from the Buriganga River, Bangladesh: An ecological risk appraisals. Science of The Total Environment, 857, 159344.
Harms I.K., Diekötter T., Troegel S., Lenz M., 2021. Amount, distribution and composition of large microplastics in typical agricultural soils in Northern Germany. Science of The Total Environment, 758, 143615.
Horton A.A., Walton A., Spurgeon D.J., Lahive E., Svendsen C., 2017. Microplastics in freshwater and terrestrial environments: Evaluating the current understanding to identify the knowledge gaps and future research priorities. Science of The Total Environment, 586, 127-141.
Hossain M.N., Rahman M.M., Afrin S., Akbor M.A., Siddique M.A.B., Malafaia G., 2023. Identification and quantification of microplastics in agricultural farmland soil and textile sludge in Bangladesh. Science of The Total Environment, 858, 160118.
Kim S.K., Kim J.S., Lee H., Lee H.J., 2021. Abundance and characteristics of microplastics in soils with different agricultural practices: Importance of sources with internal origin and environmental fate. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 403, 123997.
Lahens L., Strady E., Le T.C.K., Dris R., Boukerma K., Rinnert E., Gasperi J., Tassin B., 2018. Macroplastic and microplastic contamination assessment of a tropical river (Saigon River, Vietnam) transversed by a developing megacity. Environmental Pollution, 236, 661-671.
Lang M., Wang G., Yang Y., Zhu W., Zhang Y., Ouyang Z., Guo X., 2022. The occurrence and effect of altitude on microplastics distribution in agricultural soils of Qinghai Province, northwest China. Science of The Total Environment, 810, 152174.
Le N.D., Hoang T.T.H., Duong T.T., Phuong N.N., Le P.T., Nguyen T.D., Phung T.X.B., Le T.M.H., Le T.L., Vu T.H., Le T.P.Q., 20223. Microplastics in the Surface Sediment of the main Red River Estuary. Vietnam J. Earth Sci., 45(1), 19-32.
Lithner D., Larsson A., and Dave G., 2011. Environmental and health hazard ranking and assessment of plastic polymers based on chemical composition. Science of The Total Environment, 409(18), 3309-3324.
Liu M., Lu S., Song Y., Lei L., Hu J., Lv W., Zhou W., Cao C., Shi H., Yang X., He D., 2018. Microplastic and mesoplastic pollution in farmland soils in suburbs of Shanghai, China. Environmental Pollution, 242, 855-862.
Mintenig S.M., Int-Veen I., Löder M.G.J., Primpke S., Gerdts G., 2017. Identification of microplastic in effluents of waste water treatment plants using focal plane array-based micro-Fourier-transform infrared imaging. Water Research, 108, 365-372.
Ng E.L., Huerta Lwanga E.,Eldridge S.M., Johnston P., Hu H.W., Geissen V., Chen D., 2018. An overview of microplastic and nanoplastic pollution in agroecosystems. Science of The Total Environment, 627, 1377-1388.
Pan Z., Liu Q., Jiang R., Li W., Sun X., Lin H., Jiang S., Huang H., 2021. Microplastic pollution and ecological risk assessment in an estuarine environment: The Dongshan Bay of China. Chemosphere, 262, 127876.
Phuong N.N., Duong T.T., Le T.P.Q., Hoang T.K., Ngo H.M., Phuong N.A., Pham Q.T., Doan T.O., Ho T.C., Le N.D., Nguyen T.A.H., Strady E., Fauvelle V., Ourgaud M., Schmidt N., Sempere R., 2022. Microplastics in Asian freshwater ecosystems: Current knowledge and perspectives. Science of The Total Environment, 808, 151989.
Phuong N.N., Poirier L., Pham Q.T., Lagarde F., Zalouk-Vergnoux A., 2018. Factors influencing the microplastic contamination of bivalves from the French Atlantic coast: Location, season and/or mode of life?. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 129(2), 664-674.
Prarat P., Hongsawat P., 2022. Microplastic pollution in surface seawater and beach sand from the shore of Rayong province, Thailand: Distribution, characterization, and ecological risk assessment. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 174, 113200.
Ranjani M., Veerasingam S., Venkatachalapathy R., Mugilarasan M., Bagaev A., Mukhanov V., and Vethamony P., 2021. Assessment of potential ecological risk of microplastics in the coastal sediments of India: A meta-analysis. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 163, 111969.
Steinmetz Z., Wollmann C., Schaefer M., Buchmann C., David J., Tröger J., Muñoz K., Frör O., Schaumann G.E., 2016. Plastic mulching in agriculture. Trading short-term agronomic benefits for long-term soil degradation? Science of The Total Environment, 550, 690-705.
Strady E., Dang T.H., Dao T.D., Dinh H.N., Do T.T.D., Duong T.N., Duong T.T., Hoang D.A., Le K.T.C., Le T.P.Q., Mai H., Trinh D.M., Nguyen Q.H., Tran N.Q.A., Tran Q.V., Truong T.N.S., Chu V.H., Vo V.C., 2021. Baseline assessment of microplastic concentrations in marine and freshwater environments of a developing Southeast Asian country, Viet Nam. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 162, 111870.
Tomlinson D.L., Wilson J.G., Harris C.R., Jeffrey D.W., 1980. Problems in the assessment of heavy-metal levels in estuaries and the formation of a pollution index. Helgoländer Meeresuntersuchungen 33(1), 566-575.
van den Berg P., Huerta-Lwanga E., Corradini F., Geissen V., 2020. Sewage sludge application as a vehicle for microplastics in eastern Spanish agricultural soils. Environmental Pollution, 261, 114198.
Yu L., Zhang J., Liu Y., Chen L., Tao S., Liu W., 2021. Distribution characteristics of microplastics in agricultural soils from the largest vegetable production base in China. Science of The Total Environment, 756, 143860.
Zhang S., Yang X., Gertsen H., Peters P., Salánki T., Geissen V., 2018. A simple method for the extraction and identification of light density microplastics from soil. Science of The Total Environment, 616-617, 1056-1065.
Zhou Y., Liu X., J. Wang J., 2019. Characterization of microplastics and the association of heavy metals with microplastics in suburban soil of central China. Science of The Total Environment 694, 133798.