A case study of grinding coarse 5 mm particles into sand grade particles less than 2.36 mm


  • Aaron Reed School of Science, Engineering and Information Technology, Federation University Australia, PO Box 663, Ballarat, VIC, Australia
  • Larissa Koroznikova School of Science, Engineering and Information Technology, Federation University Australia, PO Box 663, Ballarat, VIC, Australia
  • Manoj Khandelwal School of Science, Engineering and Information Technology, Federation University Australia, PO Box 663, Ballarat, VIC, Australia




Grinding, fine grade sand, ball mill, bond index


This paper presents the viability study of utilising a rod or ball mill to grind a ‘5 mm grit’ to 100% passing 2.36 mm and fit in with a desired particle size analysis.  The aim is to introduce this grit into the concrete grade sand produced at the Hanson owned Axedale Sand & Gravel quarry to reduce generated waste and improve the process efficiency. A ball mill and rod mill were used to grind the samples at an interval of 5 and 10 minutes. From the laboratory experimental analysis, it was found that a ball mill with 5 minutes grinding time in closed-circuit using a classifier to remove undersize and reintroduce oversize to the mill would be a viable option in an industrial setting. A Bond Ball Mill Grindability Test was undertaken to determine the grindability of the 5 mm grit, which served to determine the power (kWh/t) required to grind it to 100% passing 2.36 mm. The bond ball mill grindability test showed that the grit had a work index value of 17.66 kWh/t. This work index gives an actual work input of
13.54 kWh/t, meaning that for every ton of feed material introduced to the mill, 13.54 kWh of work input is required to grind it to 150 microns.


Download data is not yet available.


Barry A., Wills J.A., 2016. Wills' Mineral Processing Technology (8 ed.). Oxford. Elsevier.

Berry T., Bruce R., 1966. A simple method of determining the grindability of ores. Canadian Mining Journal, 6(6), 63-65.

Boemer D., 2017. A generic wear prediction procedure based on the discrete element method for ball mill liners in the cement industry. Minerals Engineering, 109, 55-79. Doi:10.1016/j.mineng.2017.02.014.

Bond F., 1961. Crushing and grinding calculations part 2. British Chemical Engineering, 6(8), 543-548. Retrieved from https://www.911metallurgist.com/blog/rod-ball-impact-crushing-abrasion-the-bond-work-index-family/bond-f-c-1961-crushing-and-grinding-calculations.

Bond F., 1985. Testing and calculations. In N. L. Weiss, SME Mineral Processing Handbook. Littleton: Society for Mining, Metallurgy and Exploration, 3A-24.

Cepuritis R., 2013. Manufactured sand crushing process parameters: short review and evaluation for sand performance in fresh concrete, Nordic Concr, Res., 48, 27-48.

Cepuritis R., 2016. Crushed sand in concrete - Effect of particle shape in different fractions and filler properties on rheology. Cement and Concrete Composites, 72, 26-41. Doi: 10.1016/j.cemconcomp.2016.04.004.

Deniz V., 2016. Hyperlink "https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0921883116300632"An investigation on the effects of the ball filling on the breakage parameters of natural amorphous silica, Hyperlink "https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/09218831" Advanced Powder Technology, 27(4), 1272-1279.

Ferraris C.F., 1999. Measurements of the rheological properties of high performance concrete: state of the art report. Journal of Research of the National Institute of standards and Technology, PMC4878862, 104(5), 461-478.

Geiker M.R., Brandl L.N., Thrane L.K., Nielsen L.F., 2002. On the effect of coarse aggregate fraction and shape on the rheological properties of self-compacting concrete. Cement, Concrete and Aggregates, 24(1), 3-6.

Hanson Australia, 2017. Hanson - Home. Retrieved September 15, 2017, from Hanson Construction and Building Materials: http://www.hanson.com.au/.

Hu J., Wang K., 2011. Effect of coarse aggregate characteristics on concrete rheology. Construction and Building Materials. Elsevier, 25(3), 1196-1204.

Hyperlink "https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0950061819308517" l "!" Dilbas H., Hyperlink "https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0950061819308517" l "!" Çakır Ö., Hyperlink "https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0950061819308517" l "!" Atiş C.D. (2019) Experimental investigation on properties of recycled aggregate concrete with optimized Ball Milling Method, Hyperlink "https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/09500618" o "Go to Construction and Building Materials on ScienceDirect" Construction and Building Materials, Hyperlink "https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/09500618/212/supp/C" o "Go to table of contents for this volume/issue", 212, 716-726.

J.K., Tech, 2017. JKTech Laboratory Services: Bond Ball Mill Index Test (BRMWI). Retrieved Spetember 20, 2017, from JK Tech: http://jktech.com.au/sites/default/files/brochures/LabServices_BondBallMill.pdf.

Karima Gadri A. G., 2017. Evaluation of bond strength between sand concrete as new repair material and ordinary concrete substrate (The surface roughness effect). Construction and Building Materials, 157, 1133-1144. Doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2017.09.183.

Lynch A.M.W., 2015. Classifiers. In A. Lynch, Comminution Handbook. Carlton, Victoria, Australia: AUSIMM - Australian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, 145-165.

Menendez M.G., 2017. A Bond Work index mill ball charge and closing screen product size distributions for grinding crystalline grains. International Journal of Mineral Processing, 165, 8-14. Doi: 10.1016/j.minpro.2017.05.011.

Merkus H., 2009. Particle size measurements: fundamentals, practice, quality. Dordrecht: Springer, Netherlands.

Michaud D., 2015. Table of Bond Work Index by Minerals. Retrieved from 911 Metallurgist: https://www.911metallurgist.com/blog/table-of-bond-work-index-by-minerals.

SME, 2011. Mining Engineering Handbook, 1455-1481.




How to Cite

Reed, A., Koroznikova, L., & Khandelwal, M. (2020). A case study of grinding coarse 5 mm particles into sand grade particles less than 2.36 mm. Vietnam Journal of Earth Sciences, 43(1), 57–70. https://doi.org/10.15625/0866-7187/15701