Geochemical features of Sakhalin Island mud volcanoes
Keywords:Sakhalin Island, mud volcano, methane, hydrocarbon gas, element composition, faulting tectonics, seismic activity
The study, based on a complex geochemical research, found that the composition of the most chemical elements in mud breccia from the Yuzhno-Sakhalinsky (YSMV) and Pugachevsky (PMV) mud volcanoes (Sakhalin Island), the unique phenomena of endogenous defluidization in the Hokkaido-Sakhalin fold system (alpine-type folding), are comparable to Clark (C) contents of these elements (0.8-1.2 ×C). For Na, Li, Zn andSn, the ratio between the elemental contentsand their Clarke values (Csample/Clark value) vary from 1.4 to 5.2 xC. But the increased contents of Na and Li are due to the ascending endogenous fluid revealed. Study of the mud breccia chemical composition changes in different explosive activity of YSMV under the seismic activity variationsallowed to establish that, when the mud-volcanic gryphonsare activated against the background of increase in the temperature of the water-mud mixture and the emission of spontaneous gases, the contents of a number of elements (iron, calcium, manganese, rare earth elements, etc.) are decreased. This is explained by the formation of soluble hydrocarbonate complexes. Daginskiegasgeothermal system (DGHS) trace elements depletedooze samples were compared with YSMV and PMVsamples and exposedthat thehigh ratios of Csample /Clarke values for the majority of elements do not exceed 0.6 × C.Ooze samples from DGHS having higher elemental contents than Clark contents were observed only for Cd content (2.2-3.4 ×C) and Pb (0.7-1.5 ×C). Analysis of diatom flora on the DGHS site indicates the existence of an active fluid dynamic system that drains oil and gas bearing complexes. The factors determining the "weighting" of the methane carbon isotope composition in the southern part of Sakhalin Island are the increased seismic activity of deep-seated faults, as well as the presence of intrusions (diabase) and metamorphically altered rocks.
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