Assessment of the usability of Tam Bo bentonite (Di Linh - Lam Dong) for peloid

Tran Thi Man, Tran Thi Lan, Nguyen Anh Duong, Phan Luu Anh


The study was carried out to assess the suitability of Tam Bo bentonite for application in peloid. By using the XRD analysis method, the results showed that the mineral component of Tam Bo bentonite was mainly smectite (montmorillonite) (55–73%), illite (10-14%), quartz (10–16%), and minor minerals such as siderite, feldspar, goethite, chlorite and kaolinite. Chemical composition of the samples analyzed by the XRF method composed of a high amount of SiO2 (51.38–55.16%) and Fe2O3 (5.31–7.97%), low content of Al2O3 (14.58–20.87%), and the other oxides with low content. The analysis result using the ICP-OES method indicated that bentonites in Tam Bo consisted of trace elements such as As, Ba, Cr, Cd, Co, Cu, La, La, Pb, Sb, Sc, V, Zn, and their content is similar to the values in peloid for the commercial use. Tam Bo bentonite has a pH value of 8.17, a very high CEC index (71 mg/100g), a plasticity index of 28%, expandability of 70%. All of the samples did not contain pathogenic bacteria. The study result confirms that Tam Bo bentonite responses to the criteria for making the peloid and similar to the peloids of Vale das Furnas (in Portugal), Calda (in Italy), Archena (in Spain).


Peloid; bentonite; montmorilonite; clay mineral


Baschini M.T., Pettinari G.R., Valle´s J.M., Aguzzi C., Cerezo P., Lo´ pez-Galindo A., Setti M., Viseras C., 2010. Suitability of natural sulphur-rich muds from Copahue (Argentina) for use as semisolid health care products. Applied Clay Science, 49, 205–212.

Bui Q.C., Nguyen H.C., Nguyen V.H., Nguyen V.Q., Nguyen A.D., Le A.B., Nguyen A.T., Vegensev A.I., Bukhanov V.D., Sokolovsky P.V., 2014. Perfecting technological facilities Lam Dong bentonite treatment to produce absorbent food additives for poultry farming. 2-Bengorot International Science Workshops, 22–24 (in Russian).

Cara S., Carcangiu G., Palomba M., Tamanini M., 2000a. The bentonites in pelotherapy: chemical, mineralogical and technological properties of materials from Sardinia (Italy). Applied Clay Science, 16, 117–124.

Cara S., Carcangiu G., Palomba M., Tamanini M., 2000b. The bentonites in pelotherapy: thermal properties of clay pastes from Sardinia (Italy). Applied Clay Science, 16, 125–132.

Carretero M.I., Gomes C.S.I., Tateo F., 2006. Clays and human health, In: Handbook of Clay Science, Developments in Clay Science, (Bergaya F., Theng B.K.G., Lagaly G.), 1, 717–741.

Carretero M., Pozo M., Martin-Rubi J.A., Pozo E., Maraver F., 2010. Mobility of elements in interaction betwen artiffical sweat and peloids used in Spanish spas. Applied Clay Science, 48, 506–515.

Doan S.H., 1982. Report on exploration of bentonite clay in Tam Bo, Di Linh district, Lam Dong province. The Center for Information and Archives of Geology - General Department of Geology and Mineral Vietnam (in Vietnamese).

Gomes C., 2002. Argilas: aplicações na indústria. Gomes, C. (editor), O Liberal -Empresa de Artes Gráficas, da, Câmara de Lobos, R. A. M., 338p.

Gomes C., Carretero M., Pozo M., Maraver F., Cantista P., Armijo F., Legido J., Teixeira F., Rautureau M., Delgado R., 2013. Peloids and pelotherapy: Historyical evolution, classification and glossary. Appl Clay Sci., 75–76, 28–38.

Gomes C.S.F., Silva J.B.P., Gomes J.H.C., 2015. Natural peloids versus designed and engineered peloids. Bol Soc Esp Hidrol Méd., 30(1), 15–36.

Grabowska-Olszewska B., 1998. Geologia stosowana. Właściwości gruntów nienasyconych. Wyd. Naukowe PWN, Warszawa.

Health, Canada, 2009. Draft guidance on heavy metal impurities and Cosmetics.

Hoang M.T., Nguyen T.L., Nguyen T.D., Nguyen D.T., Le T.L., Nguyen T.M.T., Joern Kasbohm, Roland Pusch, Sven Knutsson, 2014. Mineralogical characterization of Di Linh bentonite, Vietnam: A methodological approach of X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. 13th International Symposium on Mineral Exploration, Hanoi, Vietnam. Proceedings, 143–148 (ISBN: 978-604-62-1540-0).

IARC, 1997. Silica, some silicates, coal dust and paraaramid fibrils. IARC Monogr Eval Carcinog Risks Hum, 68, 1–475. PMID:9303953.

Karakaya M.C., Karakaya N., Sariolan S., Koral M., 2010. Some properties of thermal muds of some spas in Turkey. Aplied Clay Science, 48, 531–537.

Khlaifat A., Al-Khashman O & Qutob H., 2010. Physical and chemical characterization of Dead Sea mud, Mater Charact, 61, 564–68.

Kieu Q.N., 2004. Study on structural characteristics and applicability of Lam Dong bentonite in polluted water sources treating. Journal of Science of the Earth, 26(4), 486–691 (in Vietnamese).

Kieu Q.N., Nguyen H.T.P., 2005. Using Bentonite and Diatomite in waste and breeding treating. Journal of Science of the Earth, 27(4), 351–355 (in Vietnamese).

Klee S., Farwick M., Lersch P., 2009: Triggered release of sensitive active ingredients upon response to the skin’s natural pH. Colloids and surface A: Phycicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 338, 162–166.

Lehninger A., Nelson D.L., Cox M.M., 2004. Principles of Biochemistry. W. H. Freeman and Company, New York, USA.

Le V.M., 2019. Tourism potentials - the strength of the Central Highlands in Vietnam's tourism development strategy. Institute For Tourism Development Research. (in Vietnamese).

Lopez-Galindo A., Viseras C., Cerezo P., 2007. Compositional, technical and safety specifications of clays to be used as pharmaceutical and cosmetic products. Appl. Clay Sc., 36, 51–63.

Matike D.M.E., Ekosse G.I.E., Ngole V.M., 2011. Physico-chemical properties of clayey soils used traditionally for cosmetics in Eastern Cape, South Africa, Int. J. Phys. Sci., 6(33), 7557–7566. Doi: 10.5897/IJPS11.1249.

Mihelčić G. et al., 2012. Physico-chemical characteristics of the peloid mufrom Morinje Bay (eastern Adriatic coast, Croatia): suitability for use in balneotherapy, Environ Geochem Hlth., 34, 191–198.

Nguyen V.H., Trinh V.H., Nguyen H.C., 2008.The using of molasese, bentonite, urea as addition in pellet feed for beef. Journal of Animal Science and Technology, 12(6) (in Vietnamese),

Pham T.N., Jörn Kasbohm, Nguyen T.L., Nguyen N.N., Hoang T.M.T., 2016. Application of TEM-EDX method to study the transformation of illite-smectite in Di Linh clay, Lam Dong province. Journal of Geology. Series A., 355, 63–73 (in Vietnamese).

Phuc L.T., Nguyen K.S., Vu T.D., Luong T.T., Phan T.T., Nguyen T.T., Nguyen T.M., 2017. New discovery of prehistoric archaeological remnants in volcanic caves in K’Rongno, Dak Nong province. Vietnam Journal of Earth Sciences, 39(2), 97–108.

Phuc L.T., Hiroshi Tachihara, Tsutomu Honda, Luong T.T., Bui V.T., Nguyen H., Yuriko Chikano, Katsuji Yoshida, Nguyen T.T., Pham N.D., Nguyen B.H., Tran M.D., Pham G.M.V., Nguyen T.M.H., Hoang T.B., Truong Q.Q., Nguyen T.M., 2018. Geological values of lava caves in Krongno volcano geopark, Dak Nong, Vietnam. Vietnam Journal of Earth Sciences, 40(4), 299–319.

Rebelo M., Viseras C., López Galindo A., Rocha F., Ferreira Da Silva E., 2011. Characterization of Portugese geological materials to be used in medical hydrology, Appl Clay Sci., 51, 258–266.

Summa V., Tateo F., 1998. The use of pelitic raw materials in thermal centres: mineralogy, geochemistry, grain size and leaching tests. Examples from the Lucania area (southern Italy), Appl Clay Sci., 12, 403–417.

Ta D.V., 1990. Study on using Vietnam bentonite clay to prepare drilling fluids. Doctoral thesis. National Library of Vietnam (in Vietnamese).

Tateo F., Ravaglioli A., Andreoli C., Bonin F., Coiro V., Degetto S., Giaretta A., Menconi Orsini A., Puglia C., Summa V., 2009. The in-vitro percutaneous migration of chemical elements from a thermal mud for healing use. Appl. Clay Sci., 44, 83–94.

TCVN: 8719-2012. Soils for hydraulic engineering construction-Laboratory test method for determination of expansion characteristics of soil.

TCVN: 4197-2012. Soils-Laboratory methods for determination of plastic limit and liquid limit.

TCVN 7538-2:2005 (ISO 10381-2:2002). Soil quality - Sampling-Part 2: Guidance on sampling techniques.

Terroso D., Rocha F., Ferreira da Silva E., Patinha C.,Forjaz V., Santos A., 2006. Chemical and physical characterization of mud/clay from Sa˜o Miguel and Terceira islands (Azores, Portugal) and possible application in pelotherapy. Metal Ions in Biology and Medicine, 9, 85–92.

Trinh T.K.T., Nguyen D.C., Hoang V.H., 2005. Study on synthesis of polyanilin-nanocomposite-H2SO4/clay from Di Linh bentonite, Vietnam, Chemistry and Application, 1, 32–34 (in Vietnamese).

Torrecilha J.K., Lazzerinib F.T., Silva P.S.C., 2019. Bentonite and Montmorillonite maturation with Águas de Lindóia, Peruíbe and Poços de Caldas waters. Brazilian Journal of Radiation Sciences, 07(02A), 01–16.

Veniale F., et al., 2004. Formulation of muds for pelotherapy: effects of “maturation’’ by different mineral waters, Appl Clay Sci., 25, 135–148.

Veniale F., Bettero A., Jobstraibizer P., Setti M., 2007. Thermal muds: Perspectives of innovations. Applied Clay Science, 36, 141–147.

US Pharmacopoeia 29-NF 24, 2007. US Pharmacopeial Convention, Rockville, MD.

DOI: Display counter: Abstract : 95 views.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Vietnam Journal of Earth Sciences, ISSN: 0866-7187; 2615-9783

Contact address:;;

Index: Web of Science (ESCI); Google ScholarNRSJ (Norway)CrossrefGeoRef (American Geosciences Institute)VCGScilit (Switzerland)Copernicus InternationalAsean Citation IndexCiteFactor

© Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology (VAST)