Position Location technique in Non-Line-of-Sight Environments for Wireless Sensor Networks

Hoc Thai Nguyen, Levendovszky János


In this paper a novel algorithm is proposed to provide a Steepest Ascent Search for localization problem in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Based on the Received Signal Strength (RSS) from neighbor sensor nodes, a single Moving Beacon (MB) will scan on the path of steepest ascent to locate the positions of sensor nodes. This approach not only achieves a high degree of the localization accuracy in Non-Line-Of-Sight (NLOS) environments but also decreases the execution time considerably. For performance analysis, we compare the average location error and the average execution time versus the speed of the MB. The numerical results demonstrate that our algorithms can achieve the best performance if the MB moves under 12 (m/s).  The numerical results also exhibit a better performance of our algorithms compared to other localization algorithms.


Wireless sensor network (WSN); wireless localization; received signal strength (RSS); NLOS (Non-Line-Of-Sight); Stochastic Gradient Ascent (SGA); Simulated Annealing (SA).


“Xbee-pro 900hp/xbee-pro xsc rf modules user guide,” 2012.

S. Ahmed, I. Khan, M. B. Rasheed, M. Ilahi, R. Khan, S. H. Bouk, and N. Javaid, “Comparative analysis of routing protocols for under water wireless sensor networks,” arXiv preprint

arXiv:1306.1148, 2013.

K. K. Almuzaini, A. Gulliver et al., “Range-based localization in wireless networks using densitybased outlier detection,” Wireless Sensor Network, vol. 2, no. 11, p. 807, 2010.

P. Bahl and V. N. Padmanabhan, “Radar: An in-building rf-based user location and tracking system,” in INFOCOM 2000. Nineteenth Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and

Communications Societies. Proceedings. IEEE, vol. 2. Ieee, 2000, pp. 775–784.

P. Bergamo and G. Mazzini, “Localization in sensor networks with fading and mobility,” in Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications, 2002. The 13th IEEE International Symposium on, vol. 2. IEEE, 2002, pp. 750–754.

N. Bulusu, J. Heidemann, and D. Estrin, “Gps-less low-cost outdoor localization for very small devices,” Personal Communications, IEEE, vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 28–34, 2000.

R. Castaneda, S. R. Das, and M. K. Marina, “Query localization techniques for on-demand routing protocols in ad hoc networks,” Wireless Networks, vol. 8, no. 2-3, pp. 137–151, 2002.

Y.-T. Chan, H. Y. C. Hang, and P.-c. Ching, “Exact and approximate maximum likelihood localization algorithms,” Vehicular Technology, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 55, no. 1, pp. 10–16,

R. M. Freund, “The steepest descent algorithm for unconstrained optimization and a bisection line-search method,” Journal of Massachusetts Institute of Technology. United States of america,

T. He, C. Huang, B. M. Blum, J. A. Stankovic, and T. Abdelzaher, “Range-free localization schemes for large scale sensor networks,” in Proceedings of the 9th annual international conference

on Mobile computing and networking. ACM, 2003, pp. 81–95.

T. He, C. Huang, B. M. Blum, J. A. Stankovic, and T. F. Abdelzaher, “Range-free localization and its impact on large scale sensor networks,” ACM Transactions on Embedded Computing

Systems (TECS), vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 877–906, 2005.

C.-F. Huang and Y.-C. Tseng, “The coverage problem in a wireless sensor network,” Mobile Networks and Applications, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 519–528, 2005.

M. B. Jamˆaa, A. Koubˆaa, and Y. Kayani, “Easyloc: Rss-based localization made easy,” Procedia Computer Science, vol. 10, pp. 1127–1133, 2012.

L. M. Kaplan, Q. Le, and P. Moln´ar, “Maximum likelihood methods for bearings-only target localization,” in Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, 2001. Proceedings.(ICASSP’01). 2001

IEEE International Conference on, vol. 5. IEEE, 2001, pp. 3001–3004.

H. Karl and A. Willig, Protocols and architectures for wireless sensor networks. John Wiley & Sons, 2007.

J. Levendovszky and T. HN, “Quality-of-service routing protocol for wireless sensor networks,” Journal of Information Technology & Software Engineering, vol. 2014, 2015.

W.-H. Liao, Y.-C. Lee, and S. P. Kedia, “Mobile anchor positioning for wireless sensor networks,” Communications, IET, vol. 5, no. 7, pp. 914–921, 2011.

G. Mao, B. Fidan, and B. D. Anderson, “Wireless sensor network localization techniques,” Computer networks, vol. 51, no. 10, pp. 2529–2553, 2007.

S. Meguerdichian, F. Koushanfar, G. Qu, and M. Potkonjak, “Exposure in wireless ad-hoc sensor networks,” in Proceedings of the 7th annual international conference on Mobile computing and

networking. ACM, 2001, pp. 139–150.

S. Meguerdichian, S. Slijepcevic, V. Karayan, and M. Potkonjak, “Localized algorithms in wireless ad-hoc networks: location discovery and sensor exposure,” in Proceedings of the 2nd ACM

international symposium on Mobile ad hoc networking & computing. ACM, 2001, pp. 106–116.

R. L. Moses, D. Krishnamurthy, and R. M. Patterson, “A self-localization method for wireless sensor networks,” EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing, vol. 2003, no. 4, pp.

–11, 2003.

D. Niculescu and B. Nath, “Ad hoc positioning system (aps) using aoa,” in INFOCOM 2003. Twenty-Second Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications. IEEE

Societies, vol. 3. Ieee, 2003, pp. 1734–1743.

D. Niculescuu and B. Nath, “Dv based positioning in ad hoc networks,” Telecommunication Systems, vol. 22, no. 1-4, pp. 267–280, 2003.

N. B. Priyantha, H. Balakrishnan, E. D. Demaine, and S. Teller, “Mobile-assisted localization in wireless sensor networks,” in INFOCOM 2005. 24th Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE

Computer and Communications Societies. Proceedings IEEE, vol. 1. IEEE, 2005, pp. 172–183.

T. S. Rappaport et al., Wireless communications: principles and practice. Prentice Hall PTR New Jersey, 2001, vol. 2.

A. Savvides, C.-C. Han, and M. B. Strivastava, “Dynamic fine-grained localization in ad-hoc networks of sensors,” in Proceedings of the 7th annual international conference on Mobile computing

and networking. ACM, 2001, pp. 166–179.

R. O. Schmidt, “Multiple emitter location and signal parameter estimation,” Antennas and Propagation, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 276–280, 1986.

J. Shu, L. Liu, Y. Chen, and H. Hu, “A novel three-dimensional localization algorithm in wireless sensor networks,” in Wireless Communications, Networking and Mobile Computing, 2008.

WiCOM’08. 4th International Conference on. IEEE, 2008, pp. 1–3.

K.-F. Ssu, C.-H. Ou, and H. C. Jiau, “Localization with mobile anchor points in wireless sensor networks,” Vehicular Technology, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 54, no. 3, pp. 1187–1197, 2005.

L. Tang, W. Chai, X. Chen, and J. Tang, “Research of wsn localization algorithm based on moving beacon node,” in Circuits, Communications and System (PACCS), 2011 Third PacificAsia Conference on. IEEE, 2011, pp. 1–5.

Y. Weng, W. Xiao, and L. Xie, “Total least squares method for robust source localization in sensor networks using tdoa measurements,” International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks,

vol. 2011, 2011.

K. Whitehouse, C. Karlof, and D. Culler, “A practical evaluation of radio signal strength for ranging-based localization,” ACM SIGMOBILE Mobile Computing and Communications Review, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 41–52, 2007.

B. Xiao, H. Chen, and S. Zhou, “Distributed localization using a moving beacon in wireless sensor networks,” Parallel and Distributed Systems, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 19, no. 5, pp.

–600, 2008.

J. Xu, W. Liu, F. Lang, Y. Zhang, and C. Wang, “Distance measurement model based on RSSI in wsn,” Wireless Sensor Network, vol. 2, no. 08, p. 606, 2010.

X. Yingxi, G. Xiang, S. Zeyu, and L. Chuanfeng, “Wsn node localization algorithm design based on rssi technology,” in Intelligent Computation Technology and Automation (ICICTA), 2012

Fifth International Conference on. IEEE, 2012, pp. 556–559.

K. Yu and Y. J. Guo, “Statistical nlos identification based on AOA, TOA, and signal strength,” Vehicular Technology, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 58, no. 1, pp. 274–286, 2009.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.15625/1813-9663/32/2/8369

Journal of Computer Science and Cybernetics ISSN: 1813-9663

Published by Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology