Evaluation of the effect of the concentration of seeding particles on spike-excitation doppler UVP measurement

Nguyen Tat Thang
Author affiliations


  • Nguyen Tat Thang Posts and Telecommunications Institute of Technology, Hanoi, Vietnam




flow velocity measurement, velocity profile, UVP - Ultrasonic Velocity Profile, spike excitation, doppler signal processing


In the study of fluid flows, one of the important parameters is the spatial-temporal velocity distribution. Experimental measurement of the parameter is required for the development and validation of various models in this field. Techniques for the measurement of flow velocity at single points have been in operation with great success for many years. However, there are situations where the measured data at one point is obviously not enough to understand structures in, e.g., turbulent/transient flows. One of the well-established and powerful methods for measuring velocity distribution is the UVP - Ultrasonic Velocity Profile method that enables measurements of the instantaneous velocity profile along a measurement line, i.e. the sound path. The new application of spike excitation along with the Doppler signal processing to the UVP method has recently been successfully tested. Regarding this new method, factors influencing the measurement result require further careful investigations. This study addresses, to some extent, the effect of the seeding-particle concentration on the results of spike-excitation UVP measurements. For the investigation, experimental measurements of water pipe flow have been carefully executed for a wide range of the particle concentration. The dependence of the measured data on the particle concentration is evaluated and reported. The result of this study suggests an appropriate range of the seeding-particle concentration in setting up spike-excitation UVP measurements.


Download data is not yet available.


Y. Takeda. Ultrasonic velocity profiler - from present to future. In Proceeding of the 5th International Symposium on Ultrasonic Doppler Method for Fluid Mechanics and Fluid Engineering, (2006), pp. 1–2.

Y. Takeda. Ultrasonic Doppler velocity profiler for fluid flow. Springer Science & Business Media, (2012).

D. H. Evans and W. N. McDicken. Doppler ultrasound: physics, instrumentation and signal processing. John Wiley & Sons, (2000).

H. Zheng, L. Liu, L. Williams, J. R. Hertzberg, C. Lanning, and R. Shandas. Real time multicomponent echo particle image velocimetry technique for opaque flow imaging. Applied Physics Letters, 88, (26), (2006), p. 261915. https:/doi.org/10.1063/1.2216875.

F. Zhang, C. Lanning, L. Mazzaro, A. J. Barker, P. E. Gates, W. D. Strain, J. Fulford, O. E. Gosling, A. C. Shore, and N. G. Bellenger. In vitro and preliminary in vivo validation of echo particle image velocimetry in carotid vascular imaging. Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology, 37, (3), (2011), pp. 450–464. https:/doi.org/10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2010.11.017.

H.Yu,M.Leeser,G.Tadmor,andS.Siegel.Real-timeparticleimagevelocimetryforfeedback loops using FPGA implementation. Journal of Aerospace Computing, Information, and Communication, 3, (2), (2006), pp. 52–62. https:/doi.org/10.2514/1.18062.

T. T. Nguyen, H. Kikura, N. H. Duong, H. Murakawa, and N. Tsuzuki. Measurements of single-phase and two-phase flows in a vertical pipe using ultrasonic pulse Doppler method and ultrasonic time-domain cross-correlation method. Vietnam Journal of Mechanics, 35, (3), (2013), pp. 239–256. https:/doi.org/10.15625/0866-7136/35/3/3070.

M. J. W. Povey. Ultrasonic techniques for fluids characterization. Elsevier, (1997).

P. J. Shull. Nondestructive evaluation: theory, techniques, and applications. CRC Press, (2002).

T. T. Nguyen. Study of ultrasonic velocity profiling method on boiling two-phase flow. PhD thesis, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan, (2016).

T. T. Nguyen, N. Tsuzuki, H. Murakawa, N. H. Duong, and H. Kikura. Measurement of the condensation rate of vapor bubbles rising upward in subcooled water by using two ultrasonic frequencies. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 99, (2016), pp. 159–169. https:/doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2016.03.109.

T. T. Nguyen, H. Kikura, H. Murakawa, and N. Tsuzuki. Measurement of bubbly two-phase flow in vertical pipe using multiwave ultrasonic pulsed Dopller method and wire mesh tomography. Energy Procedia, 71, (2015), pp. 337–351. https:/doi.org/10.1016/j.egypro.2014.11.887.

B. Birkhofer, T. Meile, G. De Cesare, S. A. K. Jeelani, and E. J. Windhab. Use of gas bubbles for ultrasound Doppler flow velocity profile measurement. Flow Measurement and Instrumentation, 52, (2016), pp. 233–239. https:/doi.org/10.1016/j.flowmeasinst.2016.10.015.

N. T. Thang. Two advanced non-intrusive methods for velocity distribution measurement in fluid mechanics with some recent research and development. In Proceedings of the International Conference of Fluid Machinery and Automation Systems - ICFMAS2018, (2018), pp. 653–661.

D. W. Baker. Pulsed ultrasonic Doppler blood-flow sensing. IEEE Transactions on Sonics and Ultrasonics, 17, (3), (1975), pp. 170–185.

Y. Takeda. Velocity profile measurement by ultrasound Doppler shift method. International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow, 7, (4), (1986), pp. 313–318. https:/doi.org/10.1016/0142-727x(86)90011-1.

J. A. Jensen. Estimation of blood velocities using ultrasound: a signal processing approach. Cambridge University Press, (1996).

T. T. Nguyen, H. Murakawa, N. Tsuzuki, H. N. Duong, and H. Kikura. Ultrasonic Doppler velocity profile measurement of single-and two-phase flows using spike excitation. Experimental Techniques, 40, (4), (2016), pp. 1235–1248. https:/doi.org/10.1007/s40799-016-0123-8.

H. Murakawa. Study on ultrasonic measurement technique for flow structure in bubbly flow. PhD thesis, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan, (2006).

T. T. Nguyen, H. Murakawa, N. Tsuzuki, and H. Kikura. Development of multiwave method using ultrasonic pulse Doppler method for measuring two-phase flow. Journal of the Japanese Society for Experimental Mechanics, 13, (3), (2013), pp. 277–284. https:/doi.org/10.11395/jjsem.13.277.

P. K. Kundu, I. M. Cohen, and H. H. Hu. Fluid mechanics. Elsevier Academic Press, (2008).

L. J. De Chant. The venerable 1/7th power law turbulent velocity profile: a classical nonlinear boundary value problem solution and its relationship to stochastic processes. Applied Mathematics and Computation, 161, (2), (2005), pp. 463–474. https:/doi.org/10.1016/j.amc.2003.12.109.

S. Wada, H. Kikura, M. Aritomi, M. Mori, and Y. Takeda. Development of pulse ultrasonic Doppler method for flow rate measurement in power plant multilines flow rate measurement on metal pipe. Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 41, (3), (2004), pp. 339–346. https:/doi.org/10.1080/18811248.2004.9715493.

Y. Inoue, H. Kikura, H. Murakawa, M. Aritomi, and M. Mori. A study of ultrasonic propagation for ultrasonic flow rate measurement. Flow Measurement and Instrumentation, 19, (3-4), (2008), pp. 223–232. https:/doi.org/10.1016/j.flowmeasinst.2007.06.013.

W. Treenuson, N. Tsuzuki, H. Kikura, M. Aritomi, S. Wada, and K. Tezuka. Accurate flowrate measurement on the double bent pipe using ultrasonic velocity profile method. Journal of the Japanese Society for Experimental Mechanics, 13, (2), (2013), pp. 200–211. https:/doi.org/10.11395/jjsem.13.200.






Research Article