MODIFYING WASTE POLYSTYRENE TO ION EXCHANGE MATERIAL: OPTIMIZING THE SULFONATION PROCESS AND COLUMN STUDY FOR THE REMOVAL OF Cr3+
Keywords:sulfonation, chromium removal, wastewater treatment, polystyrene waste, ion exchange
AbstractThe incredible growth of plastic waste is a major concern for the whole society in recent years. The accumulation of plastic waste has badly effects on wildlife, habitat, and humans. Plastics that act as pollutants are categorized into different sizes, from micro to macro. Disposable plastic waste was collected at the bakery shop and removed the residue food by tap water and NaOH 1M to remove residual food. This study focuses on modify waste plastic by sulfuric acid to bind the sulfonated function group on the structure of the polystyrene chain at room temperature. The sulfonated product was used for removing heavy metal ion in water with the mechanism of the ion exchange process. The prepared ion exchange material was characterized by FTIR and SEM to ensure that the sulfonation process has happened. The chromium (III) ion removal by modified ion exchange product in continuous mode was affected by an operational parameter such as the bed height of sulfonated material. The Yoon-Nelson and Thomas model were used to analyze the experimental result and the model parameters were evaluated. From this result, it can be concluded that with the increasing amount of sulfonated waste polystyrene, exchange capacity, and the time required for a 50% adsorbate breakthrough was higher.
Ellen MacArthur Foundation. The new plastics economy: Rethinking the future of plastics. Report produced by World Economic Forum and Ellen MacArthur Foundation, 2016.
Jambeck J. R., Geyer R., Wilcox C., Siegler T. R., Perryman M., Andrady A., Narayan R., Law K. L. - Plastic waste inputs from land into the ocean, Science 347 (2015) 615-617.
Lunk, H. J. - Discovery, properties and applications of chromium and its compounds, ChemTexts 1 (1) (2015) 1–17.
Kurniawan T. A., Chan G. Y. S., Lo W. H., Babel S. - Comparisons of low-cost adsorbents for treating wastewaters laden with heavy metals, Sci. Total Environ. 366 (2-3) (2006) 409-426.
Geyer R., Jambeck J. R., Law K. L. - Production, use, and fate of all plastics ever made, Sci. Adv. 3 (7) (2017) e1700782.
Martins C. R., Ruggeri G., De Paoli M. A. - Synthesis in pilot plant scale and physical properties of sulfonated polystyrene, J. Braz. Chem. Soc. 14 (2003) 797–802.
Turbak A. F. - Polymer Sulfonation without Cross Linking. The Sulfur Trioxide-Phosphate System, Ind. Eng. Chem. Prod. Res. Dev. 1 (1962) 275–278.
Andrade B. T. N. C., Bezerra A. C. da S., Calado C. R. - Adding value to polystyrene waste by chemically transforming it into sulfonated polystyrene, Matéria (Rio Janeiro) 24 (3) (2019) e12417.
Thuy P. T. - Evaluation of ion exchange material from sulfonated polystyrene waste synthesized for removal Cr3+ from aqueous solution by column experiment, Journal of Science and Technology in Civil Engineering (STCE) – NUCE 13 (2) (2019) 92–100.
Thomas H. C. - Heterogeneous Ion Exchange in a Flowing System, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 66 (1944) 1664–1666.
Yoon Y. H., Nelson J. H. - Application of Gas Adsorption Kinetics I. A Theoretical Model for Respirator Cartridge Service Life, Am. Ind. Hyg. Assoc. J. 45 (1984) 509–516.
Müller F., Ferreira C. A., Franco L., Puiggalí J., Alemán C., Armelin E. - New Sulfonated Polystyrene and Styrene–Ethylene/Butylene–Styrene Block Copolymers for Applications in Electrodialysis, J. Phys. Chem. B. 116 (2012) 11767–11779.
Karaduman A. - Pyrolysis of Polystyrene Plastic Wastes with Some Organic Compounds for Enhancing Styrene Yield, Energy Sources, 24 (7) (2002) 667-674.
Lee W. L., Jung H. R., Lee M. S., Kim J. H., Yang K. S. - Preparation and ionic conductivity of sulfonated-SEBS/SiO2/plasticizer composite polymer electrolyte for polymer battery, Solid State Ionics, 164 (1–2) (2003) 65-72.
How to Cite
Authors who publish with Vietnam Journal of Science and Technology agree with the following terms:
- The manuscript is not under consideration for publication elsewhere. When a manuscript is accepted for publication, the author agrees to automatic transfer of the copyright to the editorial office.
- The manuscript should not be published elsewhere in any language without the consent of the copyright holders. Authors have the right to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal’s published version of their work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their websites) prior to or during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges or/and greater number of citation to the to-be-published work (See The Effect of Open Access).