REMOVAL OF FLOUROQUINOLONE ANTIMICROBIALS (CIPROFLOXACIN AND NORFLOXACIN) FROM SHRIMP POND SEDIMENT DURING COMPOSTING
Keywords:antimicrobial, ciprofloxacin, composting norfloxacin, shrimp pond sediment.
This study aimed to investigate the removal of ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin from shrimp pond sediment during composting process with different antimicrobial concentrations. The results showed that after 40 days of composting, temperature varied from 25 to 55 oC. The highest temperature was on the day 20th. The pH values reduced along with composting time from weak base to neutral. During the composting processes, the removal efficiency of norfloxacin found in the range of 32.5–87.5 % depends on the initial antimicrobials concentrations. For ciprofloxacin, after 20 days of composting, the removal efficiency obtained was around 55 and 45 % and pH was 8.5 and 5.0. Salinity significantly affected ciprofloxacin removal that created remarkably efficiency reduction of ciprofloxacin in salty water as compared to fresh- and brackish water. However, no differences in removal efficiency of norfloxacin were observed between fresh and brackish water. The composted fertilizer was dark brown in color and odorless, contained 15.7-18.8 % C; 2.05 – 2.15 % N; and C/N ratio was 7.5–10.95. This indicated that compost fertilizer was completely decomposed.
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