ACUTE TOXICITY OF THE ETHANOL EXTRACT AND ETHYL ACETATE FRACTION OF EUPATORIUM FORTUNEI TO DAPHNIA MAGNA
Keywords:Eupatorium fortunei, Daphnia magna, plant extracts, acute toxicity, LC50.
Previous studies have shown that the crude ethanol extract and its ethylacetate fraction of the plant Eupatorium fortunei Turcz strongly inhibited the growth of a harmful freshwater cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa. However, the perspective of using these plant extracts as alternative algicides takes into account their potential risks to other species in aquatic ecosystems, including Daphnia magna. The current study presents the acute toxicity of the extracts to D. magna. The median lethal concentrations, immobilizing 50 % of D. magna, (LC50) after 24 and 48 h of the ethanol extract were 247 and 183 mg L-1, respectively. In the exposure to ethyl acetate fraction, the values of 24h-LC50 and 48h-LC50 were 47 and 13 mg L-1, respectively. The values of dissolved oxygen (DO) and pH in the control and treatments had little change during the 48-hour experiment period, fluctuating from 6.44 ÷ 7.90 and 6.07 ÷ 7.78 mg L-1, respectively, and they were still good conditions for D.magna growth. Finally, these results prove clearly that the ethyl acetate fraction is more toxic to the freshwater cladoceran than the ethanol extract. To our knowledge, it is the first report of the acute toxic estimation of E. fortunei extracts to zooplankton species, D. magna. Chronic toxicity of these extracts to D. magna needs to be studied in next step.
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