X-RAY PHOTOELECTRON SPECTROSCOPIC STUDY ON HIGH-ELECTRON-MOBILITY GALLIUM AND HYDROGEN CO-DOPED ZINC OXIDE THIN FILMS
Keywords:ZnO thin films, high electron mobility, XPS, chemical binding states, passivation.
In this study, gallium and hydrogen co-doped ZnO (HGZO) thin films were investigated. The films were deposited by sputtering from Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) ceramic target in hydrogen and argon plasma. The as-deposited HGZO films possess enhanced electron mobility of 48.6 cm2/Vs as compared to that of 39.4 cm2/Vs of GZO films, sputtered from the same target. Because of insignificant variation in crystallinity, this improvement is attributed to roles of hydrogen in crystalline lattice structure of the films. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is employed as an essential technique for quantitative analyses and chemical binding states of films constituent elements. The roles of hydrogen are clarified through the binding states of Zn 2p, O 1s and Ga 3d. Obtained results suggest that the films are deposited more effectively in hydrogen plasma. Some point defects such as oxygen vacancies (VO), dangling bonds can be passivated in form of H+VOHO and O–H bonds. As a result, the reduction of scattering centers is indicated as a reason for the mobility improvement of the HGZO films.
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