APPLYING BI–FUNCTIONAL DYEING AND UV PROTECTION ON PROTEIN TEXTILE MATERIALS WITH WASTE FROM USED TEABAGS AND MANGOSTEEN HULLS
Keywords:natural dyes, waste, UV protection, protein, textiles.
This paper presents the connection among three factors of the eco–friendly approach and products: natural textile materials, natural dyes and utilization of waste. The silk and wool materials were chosen as they are both protein fibers that have natural dyes affinity. The dyes were extracted from wastes (mangosteen hulls and used tea–bags) with optimal conditions found during our experiments: 80 °C for 120 min with a 15 % w/v citric acid solution in a 1:10 ratio of mangosteen flakes to solvent and 100 °C for 60 min in a 1:20 ratio of spent tea powder to solvent. The silk dyeing and wool dyeing were carried out at separately proper temperature, time and concentrations. The effect on dyeing of mordant types with different salt–metals mordanting methods and mordant techniques – pre–mordanting, simultaneous mordanting and post–mordanting were undertaken. The K/S values were used for determining the fixation of dyes on textile materials as it reflects the surface luster shade of the dyeing products. The results helped to estimate the influence of dyeing processes on protein materials where low temperature (< 90 °C) and post–mordanting methods exhibited good effects. The UPF values above 29 measured on dye fabric proved the excellent UV protection, even with non–mordant dyeing.
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