Sea surface temperature trends and the influence of ENSO on the southwest sea of Vietnam using remote sensing data and GIS
Keywords:Trend, sea surface temperature, ENSO, remote sensing, GIS, southwest sea of Vietnam.
AbstractIn this article, the sea surface temperature trends and the influence of ENSO on the southwest sea of Vietnam were analyzed using the continuous satellite-acquired data sequence of SST in the period of 2002–2018. GIS and average statistical methods were applied to calculate the average monthly and seasonal sea surface temperature, the seasonal sea surface temperature anomalies for each year and for the whole study period. Subsequently, the changing trends of sea surface temperature in the northeast and southwest monsoon seasons were estimated using linear regression analysis. Research results indicated that the sea surface temperature changed significantly throughout the calendar year, in which the maximum and minimum sea surface temperature are 31oC in May and 26oC in January respectively. Sea surface temperature trends range from 0oC/year to 0.05oC/year during the Northeast monsoon season and from 0.025oC/year to 0.055oC/year during the southwest monsoon season. Results based on the Oceanic Niño Index (ONI) analysis also show that the sea surface temperature in the study area and adjacent areas is strongly influenced and significantly fluctuates during El Niño and La Niña episodes.
Hoegh-Guldberg, O., Cai, R., Poloczanska, E. S., Brewer, P. G., Sundby, S., Hilmi, K., ... and Burrows, M. T., 2014. The Ocean. In Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Part B: Regional Aspects. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (pp. 1655–1731). Cambridge University Press.
Casey, K. S., and Cornillon, P., 2001. Global and regional sea surface temperature trends. Journal of Climate, 14(18), 3801–3818.
Jones, P. D., Osborn, T. J., Briffa, K. R., Folland, C. K., Horton, E. B., Alexander, L. V., Parker, D. E., and Rayner, N. A., 2001. Adjusting for sampling density in grid box land and ocean surface temperature time series. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 106(D4), 3371–3380. https://doi.org/10.1029/2000JD900564.
Andersen, O. B., Knudsen, P., and Beckley, B., 2002. Monitoring sea level and sea surface temperature trends from ERS satellites. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, 27(32-34), 1413–1417. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1474-7065(02)00081-5.
Lawrence, S. P., Llewellyn‐Jones, D. T., and Smith, S. J., 2004. The measurement of climate change using data from the Advanced Very High Resolution and Along Track Scanning Radiometers. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 109(C8). doi:10.1029/2003JC002104.
Shaltout, M., and Omstedt, A., 2014. Recent sea surface temperature trends and future scenarios for the Mediterranean Sea. Oceanologia, 56(3), 411–443. https://doi.org/10.5697/oc.56-3.411.
Sakalli, A., and Başusta, N., 2018. Sea surface temperature change in the Black Sea under climate change: A simulation of the sea surface temperature up to 2100. International Journal of Climatology, 38(13), 4687–4698. https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.5688.
Fang, G., Chen, H., Wei, Z., Wang, Y., Wang, X., and Li, C., 2006. Trends and interannual variability of the South China Sea surface winds, surface height, and surface temperature in the recent decade. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 111(C11). https://doi.org/10.1029/2005JC003276.
Park, Y. G., and Choi, A., 2017. Long-term changes of South China Sea surface temperatures in winter and summer. Continental Shelf Research, 143, 185–193. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.csr.2016.07.019.
Good, S. A., Corlett, G. K., Remedios, J. J., Noyes, E. J., and Llewellyn-Jones, D. T., 2007. The global trend in sea surface temperature from 20 years of advanced very high resolution radiometer data. Journal of Climate, 20(7), 1255–1264. https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI4049.1.
Barbosa, S. M., and Andersen, O. B., 2009. Trend patterns in global sea surface temperature. International Journal of Climatology: A Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 29(14), 2049–2055. https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.1855.
NOAA, 2016. El Niño and La Niña: Frequently asked questions. NOAA Climate.gov staff. January 18, 2016. https://www.climate.gov.
Klein, S. A., Soden, B. J., and Lau, N. C., 1999. Remote sea surface temperature variations during ENSO: Evidence for a tropical atmospheric bridge. Journal of Climate, 12(4), 917–932. https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(1999)012<0917:RSSTVD>2.0.CO;2.
Huynh, H. N. T., Alvera-Azcárate, A., Barth, A., and Beckers, J. M., 2016. Reconstruction and analysis of long-term satellite-derived sea surface temperature for the South China Sea. Journal of Oceanography, 72(5), 707–726. https: //doi.org/10.1007/s10872-016-0365-1.
Piton, V., and Delcroix, T., 2018. Seasonal and interannual (ENSO) climate variabilities and trends in the South China Sea over the last three decades. Ocean Sci. Discuss, 1–48. https://doi.org/10.5194/os-2017-104.
Tran Van Sam, Vo Van Lanh and Bui Hong Long, 1991. Atlas of seasonal averages of hydrological physics and dynamics of the East Vietnam Sea. Proceedings of the third National Conference on Marine Science, Vol. II, pp. 96–100. (Vietnamese).
Vo Van Lanh, Phan Quang, Vu Van Tac, Lau Va Khin, Ngo Manh Tien, Dang Ngoc Thanh, 2000. The oceanographic database of the South China Sea and adjacent waters. Collection of Marine Research Works, 10, 254–259. (in Vietnamese).
Vo Van Lanh, Tong Phuoc Hoang Son, 1999. The formation and movement tendency of intermediate extremal salinity water masses in the East Vietnam Sea. Vietnam Journal of Earth Sciences, 21(3), 228–234.
Do Huy Cuong, 2013. Radiometric calibration in analysing SST and chlorophyll-a for remote sensing images. Proceedings of the second National Scientific Conference on Marine Geology. Publishing House for Science and Technology, pp. 890–899. (Vietnamese).
Nguyen Tu Dan, Tran Anh Tuan, Trinh Hoai Thu, 2005. Satellite determination of upwelling in the Southern Central Sea of Vietnam. Contributions of Marine Geology and Geophysics, Vol. VIII (pp. 150–157). Publishing House for Science and Technology.
Le Minh Son, Luong Chinh Ke, Doan Ha Phong, 2008. Mapping sea surface temperature and chlorophyll-a concentration in the East Vietnam Sea using MODIS data. Journal of Remote Sensing and Geomatics, (5), 14–25. (in Vietnamese).
Tran Thi Tam, Tran Anh Tuan, Le Dinh Nam, Nguyen Thuy Linh, Do Ngoc Thuc, 2018. Research on establishment of the sea surface temperature map of the southwest water of Vietnam using remote sensing data and GIS. Journal of Geodesy and Cartography, (35), 50–58. (in Vietnamese).
Nguyen Thuy Linh, 2018. The changing trend of sea surface temperature of southwest sea of Vietnam. Forest and Environment, (91), 22–25. (in Vietnamese).
JPL MUR MEaSUREs Project, 2015. GHRSST Level 4 MUR Global Foundation Sea Surface Temperature Analysis (v4.1). Ver. 4.1. PO.DAAC, CA, USA. Dataset accessed [2018-09-10]. http://dx.doi.org/10.5067/GHGMR-4FJ04.
Vu Hai Dang, Nguyen Minh Huan, Nguyen Ba Thuy, Do Ngoc Thuc, 2019. Study on characteristics of sea surface temperature variation in the South Central sea region of Vietnam during the period of 2002-2018. Vietnam Journal of Hydro-Meteorology, EME2, 139–145. (in Vietnamese).
Climate Prediction Center. Historical El Niño/La Niña episodes (1950-present). NOAA/ National Weather Service. https://origin.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov/.