Carotenoid producing Bacillus aquimaris found in chicken gastrointestinal tracts

Tran Thi Luong, Ngo Thi Huong, Bui Thi Viet Ha, Pham Thi Thu Huong, Nguyen Hoa Anh, Do Thi Viet Huong, Quach Thi Ha Van, Phan Tuan Nghia, Nguyen Thi Van Anh


Pigmented spore-forming bacterial strains were isolated from the gastrointestinal tracts of chickens for screening for heat-stable carotenoid-producing strains that could be applied as feed supplements. Of the seven heat-stable pigmented isolates screened, only two, yellow Sporosarcina saromensis CH1 and red-orange Bacillus aquimaris CH9, produced pigments with typical carotenoid absorbance peaks (400–500 nm). The CH9 carotenoids exhibited higher scavenging activity (73.2%) of DPPH free radicals than the CH1 carotenoids (35.9%) and carotenoids of the reference B. indicus HU36 strain (78.4%), in comparison to 100% activity of acid ascorbic at 18.75 M as the standard. The CH9 strain produced high levels of carotenoids (439 g [g DW]-1) and formed nearly 100% spores, whereas the CH1 strain produced low levels of carotenoids (92 g [g DW]-1) and only achieved 30% sporulation. Chromatographic and spectral profiles of the carotenoids found in CH9 indicated the presence of as many as 11 different carotenoid types closely related to 1-HO-demethylspheroidene and keto/hydroxyl derivatives of  carotene. We successfully produced concentrated orange CH9 spore powder at a high concentration of 6.1 × 1011 CFU g-1; these spores were much more heat-stable (66% survival at 80°C for 20 min) than the reference B. indicus HU36 spores (9% survival at 50°C for 20 min). In conclusion, B. aquimaris CH9 is a promising probiotic carotenoid-producing strain, with heat-stable spores that should withstand the heat-treatment processing required for feed and food supplement production.


Bacillus, spores, carotenoids, heat-stable, gastrointestinal tract (GIT)

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