In recent years, the production and use of organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) have been increased significantly due to their excellent fire resistance and the prohibition of the use of several brominated flame retardants. However, there is little knowledge of levels of OPFRs in the environment, including the indoor environment. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the occurrence and distribution of 15 OPFRs in indoor air samples collected from 3 districts of Hanoi city. Nine out of fifteen OPFRs were detected in the indoor air with the mean concentration of total OPFRs (SOPFR) was 151 ng/m3 (ranged from 39.3 to 372 ng/m3). Tris (1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCPP) was found at the highest concentration (mean value of 114 ng/m3) in all samples and accounted for 67,5% of SOPFRs, followed by TBEP (29.4 ng/m3), accounting for 23.9%. Whereas TPP, TDCPP, TBP and TCEP were found in some samples with lower concentrations (average value of 2.58; 2.48; 1.36 and 0.50 ng/m3, respectively). The SOPFR in the environmental apartments were higher than those in the individual houses, probably attributed to strict requirements for the use of flame retardant building materials and interior decorations of apartment buildings


Organophosphate flame retardant; Gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry; indoor air

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