Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription Access

Hydrogeology and origin of waters of the Panyam Volcanic Line springs, Jos Plateau, Nigeria

Longpia C. B.


The PVL springs are used for both domestic and agricultural purposes. The seepage from the springs has resulted in producing a large expanse of wetlands and is therefore intensively use for dry season farming. The aim of this study was to determine the hydrogeological, hydrochemical characteristics, origin and their suitability for domestic and irrigation. The hydrogeology of the springs was determined by field mapping. The physico-chemical parameters were determined in the field and by laboratory methods. For the cation and anion analysis the ICP-MS and the wet methods were employed respectively. The stable isotope composition of oxygen (δ18O) and hydrogen (δ2H) were analyzed by Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometer. The hydrochemical analysis revealed that the PVL springs waters are generally neutral with an average pH value of 7.3. The average TDS and EC values are 127.8mg/l and 246µs/cm respectively. These values fall within fresh water class. The average Mg2+,Ca2+, Na+ and K+ cation concentration values are 16.3mg/l, 15.8mg/l, 10.8mg/l and 5.58mg/l respectively. The average anions concentration of HCO3-, SO4 and Cl- are 140mg/l, 8.6mg/l and 3.4mg/l respectively. Piper trilinear diagram show that the spring waters is predominantly Mg-Ca-HCO3 water type with potable qualities based on WHO drinking water standards. The sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR) and Sodium Soluble Percentage (SSP) values range between 0.44 to 0.84 and 26.4 to 54% respectively and falls within irrigation quality standards. Stable isotope compositions of δ18O and δ2H ranges from -3.60/00 to -4.90/00 and -200/00 to -280/00 respectively falls within the meteoric water composition. This is further affirmed by the δ2H versus δ18O plot on the correlation diagram with Standard Meteoric Water Line.


Hydrogeology; hydrogeochemistry; origin; Panyam Volcanic Line springs

Full Text:



Almoni N., 1994. Environmental isotope and hydrochemical study of the shallow and deep groundwater in the Azrag Basin, Jordan. Proceedings of the final co-ordination meeting of a regional technical co-operation project at Ankara, Turkey, IAEA, 75-125.

Chad Basin Commission, 2010. Lake Chad sustainable water management project activities. Report, 3, pp. 35.

Chourasia L.P., 2007. Hydrogeochemistry of groundwater in part of the hardrock terrain of Central India. Water quality and sediment behaviour of the future: predictions for the 21st Century. Proceedings of symposium HS 2006. IAHS Publications, 314, 286-292.

Durairaj S., Pavithra S.L., Vasuki K., Lavenya B., 2015. Groundwater suitability for irrigation around Perungalothur, Chennai, Tamil Nadu. International Journal of Applied Eng. Research, 10, 53, 37-42.

Evian, 1981. E’tude Hydrogeo-electrique-Kerang. Report No. 1 Spring Waters of Nigeria, pp.30. Water quality for agriculture. Retrieved 19/06/2020.

Faure G., 1986. Principles of Isotope Geology (2nd edition). John Wiley and Sons Ltd, New York, pp.589.

Fetter C.W., 1990. Applied hydrogeology. Published by Stationary Office, Mishawaka, pp.598.

Ghadami F., Mahmoud N., Mohammed G., Najid M., 2012. Hydrochemical properties of the thermal water of Mahalat Abgarm, Iran. GRC Transactions, 36.

Ghiglieri G., Pitalis D., Cerri G., Ogiano G., 2012. Hydrogeology and hydrogeochemistry of an alkaline volcanic area: the NE Mt. Meru Slope (East African Rift-Northern Tanzania). Journal of Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 16, 529-541.

Gusikit R.B., 2010. Major and trace element distribution in natural groundwater and soils in Panyam Volcanic Province: Health Implication. MSc Thesis, University of Jos, Jos, pp.128.

Jones B.F., Eugster H.P., Reting S.L., 1977. Hydrogeochemistry of the Lake Magadi Basin, Kenya. Geochem. Cosmochin Ac, 41, 53-72.

Lar U., Lekmang I., Longpia C., Tsalha M., 2020. Is a volcanic eruption possible in Nigeria? In: A. Paone & S. Yun (Eds). Forecasting Volcanic Eruptions. Intech Open, London, pp.5-27.

Lar U.A., Lekmang I.C., Shuaibu M.T., Mahmud U.M., Yakubu T.A., 2013.Volcanoes of Nigeria: A preliminary study. Proceedings of the 7th Conference on African Geology. Assiut, Egypt, pp.16.

Lar, U.A. and Gusikit, R.B., 2015. Environmental health impact of potentially harmful elements distribution in Panyam (Sura) Volcanic Province, Jos Plateau, Central Nigeria. Environmental Earth Sciences. Springer.

Lekmang I.C., 2019. Geochemistry of the basalts of Kerang twin volcanoes within the Panyam Volcanic Line, Jos Plateau, Nigeria: Implications for their origin and evolution. PhD Thesis, University of Jos, Jos., pp.176,

Martin-Del Pozzo A.L., Aceves F., Espinasa R., Aguago A., Inguagiato S., Morales P., Cientuegos E., 2002. Influence of volcanic activity on spring water chemistry at Popocatepetl Mexico. Chemical Geology, 190, 207-209.

Martin-Del Pozzo, A. L., Inguagiato, S., Aceves, F., Saenz, H., and Aguayo, A., 2002. Spring Water and CO2 Interaction at Popocatepetl Volcano, Mexico. Geofisica International, 41(3), 345-351.

Offodile, M.E., 2014. Hydrogeology: Groundwater study and development in Nigeria (3rd edition). Mecon Geology and Engineering Services Ltd, Jos, pp.636.

Piper A.M., 1944. A graphic procedure in the geochemical interpretation of water analysis. EOS transactions. American Geophysical Union, 25, 914-928.

Praasma T., Novakowski K., Kyer K., Hall K., 2009. Using stable isotopes and hydraulic head data to investigate groundwater recharge and discharge in a fractured aquifer. Journal of Hydrology, 366, 35-45

Sadashivaiah C., Ramakrishnaiah C.R., Rangana G., 2008. Hydrochemical analysis and evaluation of groundwater quality in Tunkur Talic, Kamatake State, India. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 5, 158-164.

Schoeneich K., Mbonu W.C., 1991. Excursion guide book on the geology of Jos Plateau and Yankari Game Reserve. Nigerian Mining and Geoscience Society, pp.21.

Schoeneich K., Ugodulunwa F.X.O., 1994. April. Guide book on the field trip to Panyam Volcanoes. 30th Annual Conference of Nigerian Mining and Geosciences Society, Jos, Plateau State, pp.18.

Siebe C., Goff F., Amienta M.A., Counce D., Poreda R., Chipra S., 2007. Geology and hydrogeochemistry of Jangapeo CO2-rich Thermal Springs, State of Michoacan, Mexico. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 1, 1-33.

Spring water. Retrieved 27/06/2020.

Talabi A.O., 2013. Hydrogeochemistry and stable isotopes (δ18O and δ2H). Assessment of Ikogosi spring waters. American Journal of Water Resources, 1(3), 25-33. USGS surface water data for Missouri. Retrieved 15/06/2020.

WHO, 2004. Guidelines for drinking water quality: Recommendations Vol. I 2nd Edition.

DOI: Display counter: Abstract : 48 views. PDF : 2 views.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Vietnam Journal of Earth Sciences, ISSN: 0866-7187; 2615-9783

Contact address:;;

Index: Web of Science (ESCI); Scopus (accepted), GeoRef (American Geosciences Institute); NPI (Norway)Google ScholarScilit (Switzerland)Copernicus InternationalAsean Citation IndexCiteFactor

© Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology (VAST)