Germanium Band Gap Engineering Induced by Tensile Strain for Si-Based Optoelectronic Applications

Luong Thi Kim Phuong, Nguyen Manh An

Abstract


We have combined structural and optical characterizations to investigate the tensile-strained state and the band gap engineering of Ge layers grown on Si(001) using molecular beam epitaxy. The tensile strain is generated in the Ge layers due to a difference of thermal expansion coefficients between Ge and Si. The Ge growth on Si(001) was proceeded using a two-step growth process: a low-temperature step to produce relaxed buffer layers, followed by a high-temperature step to generate the tensile strain in the Ge layers. For the low-temperature step, we have evidenced the existence of a substrate temperature window from 260 to \(300\circ\)C in which the well-known Stranski-Krastanov Ge/Si growth mode transition from two-dimensional to three-dimensional growth can be completely suppressed. We show that the value of the tensile strain in the Ge layers lineally increases with increasing the growth temperature and reaches a saturation value of \(\sim 0.24\)% in the temperature range of \(700-770\circ\)C. Post-grown cyclic thermal annealing has allowed to increase the tensile strain up to 0.30%, which is the highest value ever reported to date. Finally, photoluminescence measurements reveal both an enhancement of the Ge direct band gap emission and a reduction of its energy due to the presence of tensile strain in the layers.

Keywords


tensile strain, optoelectronics, molecular beam epitaxy, cyclic annealing

Full Text:

PDF

References


J. Liu, X. Sun, R. Camacho-Aguilera, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, Opt. Lett. 35 (2010) 679 and references therein.

R. Soref, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Menendez, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 958 (2007) 13.

R. Soref, J. Kouvetakis, J. Tolle, J. Menendez, and V. D’Costa, J. Mater. Res. 22 (2007) 3281.

M. El Kurdi, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, and P. Boucaud, J. Appl. Phys. 107 (2010) 013710.

X. Sun, J.F. Liu, L.C. Kimerling, J. Michel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95 (2009) 011911.

M. El Kurdi, T. Kociniewski, T.-P. Ngo, J. Boulmer, D. Débarre, P. Boucaud, J.F. Damlencourt, O. Kermarrec, and D. Bensahel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94 (2009) 191107.

M. El Kurdi, H. Bertin, E. Martincic, M. de Kersauson, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, A. Bosseboeuf, and P. Boucaud, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96 (2010) 041909.

Y. Bai, K. E. Lee, C. Cheng, M. L. Lee, and E. A. Fitzgerald, J. Appl. Phys. 104 (2008) 084518.

Y.-Y. Fang, J. Tolle, R. Roucka, A.V.G. Chizmeshya, J. Kouvetakis, V.R. D'Costa, J. Menéndez, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 061915 (2007); J. Menëndez, J. Kouvetakis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85 (2004) 1175.

D.J. Eaglesham, M. Cerullo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 64 (1990) 1943.

V. Le Thanh, Surf. Sci. 492 (2001) 255 and references therein.

L. Colace, G. Masini, F. Galluzzi, G. Assanto, G. Capellini, L. Di Gaspare, E. Pelange, and F. Evangelisti, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72 (1998) 3175.

H.-C. Luan, D.R. Lim, K.K. Lee, K.M. Chen, J.G. Sandland, K. Wada, L.C. Kimerling, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75 (1999) 2009.

J.-M. Hartmann, A. Abbadie, A.M. Papon, P. Holliger, G. Rolland, T. Billon, J.M. Fédéli, M. Rouvière, L. Vivien, S. Laval, J. Appl. Phys. 95 (2004) 5905.

J.-M. Hartmann, A.M. Papon, V. Destefanis, T. Billon, J. Cryst. Growth. 310 (2008) 5287.

V. Le Thanh, V. Aubry-Fortuna, D. Bouchier, A. Younsi, and G. Hincelin, Surf. Sci. 369 (1996) 85.

M. Halbwax, D. Bouchier, V. Yam, D. Débarre, Lam H. Nguyen, Y. Zheng, P. Rosner, M. Benamara, H. P. Strunk, C. Clerc, J. Appl. Phys. 97 (2005) 064907.

V. Le Thanh, D. Bouchier, G. Hincelin, J. Appl. Phys. 87 (2000) 3700.

J. Liu, H. J. Kim, O. Hul’ko, Y. H. Xie, S. Sahni, P. Bandaru, and E. Yablonovitch, J. Appl. Phys. 96 (2004) 916.

J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, D. T. Danielson, S. Jongthammanurak, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, Phys. Rev. B. 70 (2004) 155309.

L. Souriau, T. Atanasova, V. Terzieva, A. Moussa, M. Caymax, R. Loo, M. Meuris, and W. Vandervorst, J. Chem. Soc. 155 (2008) H677.

M. A. Lutz, R. M. Feenstra, F. K. LeGoues, P. M. Mooney, and J. O. Chu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66 (1995) 724.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.15625/0868-3166/23/4/3207 Display counter: Abstract : 130 views. PDF : 24 views.

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Editorial Office:

Communications in Physics

1st Floor, A16 Building, 18B Hoang Quoc Viet Street, Cau Giay District, Hanoi, Vietnam

Tel: (+84) 024 3791 7102 

Email: cip@vjs.ac.vn

Copyright by